Slave Revolts of the Americas

The African slaves in greatest demand came from the Gold Coast. There the warlike Ashanti Negroes in the eighteenth century conquered neighboring tribes; thousands of prisoners of war were sold by that tribe to native traders at the great slave market at Mansu. Gold Coast Negroes were Coromantines, or Koromantyns, or Koromantees. They were distinguished above all other slaves by their superior physique, courage, firmness, and impatience of control. Mutinies in the “crossing” and rebellions in the West Indies, particularly in Jamaica, were often started by Coromantines. So menacing were they at one period in Jamaica that the legislature considered laying an extra duty on the importation of “Fantin, Akin, and Ashanti Negroes, and all others commonly called Koromantees.” But in view of that great superiority, the bill was successfully opposed. 15 Bryan Edward’s commentary on the Coromantines is a significant tribute to them: “Even the children brought from the Gold Coast manifest an evident superiority, both in hardiness of frame and vigour of mind, over all the young people of the same age that are imported from other parts of Africa. The like firmness and intrepidity which are distinguishable in adults of this nation, are visible in their boys at an age which might be thought too tender to receive any lasting impression, either from precept or example.

There were 24 Major Slave Revolts in North America

 

 

 

1649- The slave revolt in Barbados of 1649 was an amateur attempt at freedom. This included two plantations, and the trigger was insufficient food. It was quickly subdued with not much damage.

1673- The Tacky revolt in Jamaica was led by people from the Gold Coast (modern-day Ghana) – Akan, Ashanti and Coromanti – who were often at the forefront of slave revolts in Jamaica during the 17th and 18th centuries. About 300 of them revolted in the parish of St Ann in 1673. In the parish of Clarendon 17 years later, 400 Coromanti burned down Sutton’s estate and fled to the hills. In 1745, Akan-born slaves revolted in the south-eastern parish of St Thomas.  (Victorious)

1675- On November 24, 1675, the House of Assembly (Barb. Ass. 1675) decided to consider the manumission of Fortuna as a reward for “her eminent service to the good of this country in discovering the intended plotted rebellion of the Negroes.” The “plotted rebellion” that she had brought to the attention of her master involved only African-born male plantation slaves and not Creoles (Atkins 1675; Gr. Newes 1676: 9-11; Cont. of State 1676: 19; Godwyn 1680: 130-131). It apparently had been “hatched by the Cormantee or Gold-Coast Negro’s” who, as Governor Atkins (1675) reported, “are much the greater number [in Barbados] from any one country, and are a warlike and robust people.” Although “Cormantee” Africans were a majority of those implicated and most, if not all, of them were probably Akan speakers — a prominent group in Caribbean slave rebellions from the 17th through the 19th  centuries (Schuler 1970a) — while other African-born slaves appear to have been involved as well.

The revolt had been planned for “about three years” and was “cunningly and clandestinely carried, and kept secret, even from the knowledge of their own wife” (Gr. Newes 1676: 9). Slaves from several plantations were involved, although Governor Atkin’s (1675) report that the plot “had spread over most of the plantations” may have been exaggerated to impress the English government with the potential danger of what was felt to be the weakened state of the island’s militia (cf. Gr. Newes 1676: 10—11; Cont. of State 1676: 19). “In the dead time of the night,” the plan called for trumpets…of elephants teeth and gourdes to be sounded on several hills, to give notice of their general rising.” With this signal, which was to be given simultaneously in different locales, the cane fields were to be burned, and the insurrectionists on each plantation were to attack their masters, “cut their throats,” and ultimately kill all of the island’s whites “within a fortnight”             (Gr.News 1676: 9-11; Cont. of State 1676: 19).

1678- Opposition faction rejects treaty signed by Brazilian maroon king Ganga Zumba.

1690- There are several rebellions in the 1700s attributed to Coromantees. According to Edward Long, the first rebellion occurred in 1690 when three or four hundred slaves in Clarendon Parish who, after killing a white owner, seized firearms and provisions and killed an overseer at the neighboring plantation.  A militia was formed which eventually suppressed the rebellion, hanging the leader.  Several of the rebels fled and joined the Maroons. Long also describes the incident where a slave-owner was overpowered by a group of Coromantees who after killing him, cut off his head, and turned his skull into a drinking bowl.[62] In 1739, the leader of Coromantee Maroons named, Cudjoe (Kojo) signed a treaty with the British ensuring the Maroons would be left alone provided they did not help other slave rebellions.

1692- The insurrectionists in Barbados aimed not only “to kill the governor and all the planters,” but also “to destroy the government . . . and to set up a new governor and government of their own” (Brief Rel. 1693). More specifically, “they design’d to have taken up the surnames and offices of the principal planters and men in the island, to have enslaved all the black men and women to them, and to have taken the white women for their wives . . . no imported Negro was to have been admitted to   partake of the freedom they intended to gain, till he had been made free by them, who should have been their masters. The old women (both black and white) were to have been their cooks, and servants in other capacities. And they had chosen a governor among themselves.

 

 

 

 

 

1816 – Black Seminole rebellion

  • 1831–1832 Baptist War
    (British Jamaica, Suppressed)

1831- Probably the most significant slave insurrection in the British Virgin Islands occurred in 1831 when a plot was uncovered to kill all of the white males in the Territory and to escape to Haiti (which was at the time the only free black republic in the world) by boat with all of the white females. Although the plot does not appear to have been especially well formulated, it caused widespread panic, and military assistance was drafted in from St. Thomas. A number of the plotters (or accused plotters) were executed.

1832- In Jamaica Samuel Sharpe, an educated slave who was also a Baptist deacon, was the moving spirit behind the attempted general strike that became the Christmas Rebellion.  That time of year was less than festive for Jamaica’s enormous slave population, for Saint Nick opened the short window for harvesting the island’s sugar cane.  Samuel Sharpe and collaborators had the wit to realize that being depended upon to bring in the cash crop that made life comfortable for their owners put the slaves’ hands upon a potent economic lever. In the last few days of 1831, they pressed it. The “passive resistance” didn’t last long, however and the “strike” transmuted into a rebellion — the cause swiftly taken up by thousands of enslaved Africans around the island who torched crops. Given the small (less than 20) white body count, the “violence” appears to have been directed against the instruments, rather than the perpetrators, of their enslavement. The rebellion was suppressed within days, and over 300 put to death for it (in addition to 200 slave casualties during the pacification itself). Sharpe was the last of those executed.  But his revolt is widely thought to have given impetus to the British parliament’s deliberations over the ensuing months that ultimately led to the Slavery Abolition Act (1833). Sharpe, today, is an official national hero of Jamaica. The place in Montego Bay that he hanged is known as Sam Sharpe Square, and his face adorns the currency.

 

  • 1839 Amistad, ship rebellion
    (Off the Cuban coast, Victorious)

It was the result of an American slave revolt in November 1841 on board the Creole, a ship involved in theUnited States coastwise slave trade. As 128 slaves gained freedom after the rebels ordered the ship sailed to Nassau, it has been termed the “most successful slave revolt in US history”.[1] Two persons died as a result of the revolt, a black slave and a white slave trader.

 

South America

Incidents of slave revolts, rebellions, resistances and plots, were more numerous in Latin and Central American countries than in the U.S

The conclusion drawn from the Sambo thesis was that Latin Americans manumitted more enslaved Africans than their North American counterpart, and that as a result the slave system was “open” in “that emancipation was within the grasp of the majority of bondsmen.”[9] Whereas, the system in the United States was “close” and there were few opportunities for freedom. Sir Harry Johnston in 1910 originated this notion in The Negro in the New World where he  concluded  that the slave system of servitude in Spanish America was milder and more benign than the slave system in the United States.[10] Sir Harry Johnston’s  thesis was further developed by Frank Tannenbaum, U. B. Phillips, and more recently Stanley Elkins.

Slave revolts were more likely in  Latin America because enslaved Africans were not docile, submissive and dehumanized to the point where they failed to rebel against their oppression. He believes that as a result abolition of slavery in Latin America did not require a Civil War as it did in the U.S. But, the fact remains that slavery ended in the US in 1865, and did not end in Cuba until 1886 and in Brazil until 1888 which counters this argument.

Upon arrival in Brazil the various “tribal” groups were not separated as they were in America.  More than any single explanation the American policy of selective separation was one of the key reasons why there were fewer slave revolts in the United States.

In other words, the masters in the United States were consciously known to purchase slaves of different nations to forestall rebellion.

1512- In 1512, forty enslaved Africans owned by Christopher Columbus’s son Diego Colon, mounted a rebellion which lasted a few months until the Africans were captured and executed.  (Supressed)

 

 

1522- One of the most serious slave revolts in Spanish America broke out on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola on December 28, 1522, which is today the Dominican Republic, and led by the Wolof enslaved Africans from Senegal in West Africa.  Some forty enslaved Africans, working at the sugar mill on the   plantation of the Governor, Admiral Diego Colon (Columbus) Christobal Colon, conspired with other Africans working on nearby plantations.  On Christmas night the enslaved Africans attacked, killing at least nine of the whites on nearby plantations.[45]  (Victorious)

1525- Santa Marta was the first Colombian town  founded by the Spanish.  Five years later it was the first town completely destroyed as a result of a slave rebellion.  It was rebuilt in 1531, and another slave uprising took place there in 1550.[46] (Victorious)

1527- African and Indian slaves revolted against the Spanish authorities in Puerto Rico, and fought the Spanish authorities.  Some Africans escaped and retreated to the mountains, where they resided as maroons with the Taino Indians.[47] (Victorious)

1532- In 1532 the first slave revolt took place in the first slave revolt in Venezuela in the town of Coro.[48] In the town 55 percent of the Coro district were African in origin. (Victorious)

1533- The first recorded slave revolt in Cuba took place at the Jobabo mines.  Four enslaved Africans battled a large military force until their death.  Four of the of leaders of the rebellion were hung, drawn, and quartered, and their heads were put on stakes. [49] (Suppressed)

1537- The first slave rebellion occurred in Mexico in 1537.  The history of slave revolts in Mexico is tied directly to the rise of silver mines and the cultivation of sugar, which is labor intensive, and increased the demand for enslaved African labor.  Mexico City was the focus of the slave revolt, which had the largest concentration of enslaved Africans.  In the first slave revolt in Mexico the Africans faced some serious organizational problem in electing a king. The enslaved Africans, acting in conjunction with the Indians of Mexico City and Tlaltelolco, decided to murder all the Spaniards.  The rebellion was to begin at midnight on September 24, 1537. However, right before the slave revolt was to take place, one of the Africans revealed the plan to the viceroy. Viceroy Mendoza acted swiftly and ordered the arrest of the king as well as the ringleaders.  As a result, the expected revolt never materialized.  The Viceroy then enlisted the Indians to track down the other conspirators.  Five Africans were captured including one women; they were killed and salted to preserve their bodies, which they prevented to the viceroy.[50] (Surpressed)

1540- On September 1, 1540 Pedro Gilafo was apprehended near the town of Orisco in Coast Rica. He had fled his master and was thought to have been in the company of “war-like Indians” for the previous twenty days.  Local officials had him boiled alive.[51] (Supressed)

1545- This period from 1545-48 in Hispaniola (Santo Domingo)  is known as the “War of the Negroes.”  Bloody battles were fought between Spanish-led forces and cimarones.  The most important fugitive, Diego de Campo, had been at large since 1536 and was feared throughout the land.  Captured in 1546, he joined the Spaniards and subsequently made short work of the other cimarrones. (Surpressed)

1545-In Columbia in 1545 a group of enslaved Africans escaped from a mine in the present-day department of Popayan.  They seized the town of Tofeme, killed twenty whites, and carried off 250 Indian hostages to the mountains.[52] (Surpressed)

1548- Slaves rebelled in the gold mines of Colombia.[53]

 

1551- In 1551, Viceroy Luis de Velasco had to call out the military to deal with disturbances caused by enslaved Africans.  While their masters were at Mass or attending to their business the Negroes went through the pueblos and with their arms killed some Spaniards and wounded some Indians.[54]  (Victorious)

1552- Operating from the San Blas Mountains in the isthmus of Panama enslaved Africans attacked Spanish mule trains carrying silver and other goods eastward to Porto Bello. King Bayano, a Muslim Mandinka, who was captured and enslaved in West Africa, led the largest sixteenth-century revolt against the Spanish colonial rule in Panama. He caused problems until he was captured, castrated, and released in 1553.  King Bayano was then pardoned, but later continued his rebellious activities. Another group led by Luis de Mozambique and Anton Mandinga, continued to rebel against Spanish authority until Madrid issued a general pardon for Panamanian cimarrones.  These rebels and their supporters were settled in two towns, Santiago del Principle (1579) and Santa Cruz de la Real (1582).[55]   (Victorious)

1553- In 1553, the first recorded revolt by Africans enslaved by the Spanish colonial authority disrupted a gold rush in Venezuela’s Burla mining region. The uprising was led by Negro Miguel, an African slave who established a maroon colony and who is now recognized as a leader in the historical struggle for racial justice in Venezuela. Following the discovery of gold reserves by Spanish explorer Damián del Barrio on the edges of the Buría River, now in Venezuela’s Yaracuy State, near the city of Nirgua, a gold rush ensued, leading to the founding in 1551 of Real de Minas de San Felipe de Buría, the first miners’ settlement in Venezuela. In its wake, gold miners established the town of El Tocuyo in 1545 as a prospecting center. In 1550, the Spanish crown decided to permit the involuntary transport of the first African slaves to the region to work the mines. By 1552, 80 Africans, including Miguel, his wife, and his children, were forced into slavery in the Real de Minas region. In 1553, Miguel fled the mining operation with his family and other enslaved Africans to the surrounding mountains, from where they planned a nocturnal ambush of colonial guards and miners in Real de Minas.

1582- Cimarrones operating from the San Blas Mountains in the isthmus attacked Spanish mule trains carrying either silver and other goods eastward to Porto Bello, or enslaved Africans and imported wares westward tp Panama City.  One group, led by King Ballano, caused serious difficulties until the leader was captured, castrated, and release in 1553.  King Ballano then was pardoned, but he later formed another group of raiders that operated successfully until he was recaptured in 1558.  Another group was led by Luis de Mozambique and Anton Mandinga, continued to disrupt isthmus traffic until Madrid issued a general pardon for Panamanian cimarrones.  These reformed  rebels and their supporters were then settled in two towns, Santiago del Principe in 1579 and Santa Cruz de la Real in 1582.[56]

1570- Gaspar Yanga—often simply Yanga or Nyanga [meaning doctor or traditional healer in Bantu languages]—was a leader of a slave rebellion in Mexico during the early period of Spanish colonial rule. Said to be of the Bran people and member of the royal family of Angola or Gabon, Yanga came to be the head of a band of revolting slaves near Veracruz around 1570. Escaping to the difficult terrain of the highlands, he and his people built a small maroon colony, or Palenque. For more than 30 years it grew, partially surviving by capturing caravans bringing goods to Veracruz. However, in 1609 the Spanish colonial government decided to undertake a campaign to regain control of the territory. (Victorious)

 

Led by the soldier Pedro González de Herrera, the Spanish troops which set out from Puebla in January 1609 numbered around 550, of which perhaps 100 were Spanish regulars and the rest conscripts and adventurers. The maroons facing them were an irregular force of 100 fighters with some type of firearm, and four hundred more with primitive weapons such as stones, machetes, bows and arrows. These maroon troops were led by Francisco de la Matosa, an Angolan. Yanga—who was quite old by this time—decided to employ his troops’ superior knowledge of the terrain to resist the Spaniards, with the goal of causing them enough pain to draw them to the negotiating table.

Upon the approach of the Spanish troops, Yanga sent terms of peace via a captured Spaniard. Essentially, Yanga asked for a treaty akin to those that had settled hostilities between Indians and Spaniards: an area of self-rule, in return for tribute and promises to support the Spanish if they were attacked. In addition, he suggested that this proposed district would return any slaves which might flee to it. This last concession was necessary to soothe the worries of the many slave owners in the region.

The Spaniards refused the terms, and a battle was fought, yielding heavy losses for both sides. The Spaniards advanced into the settlement and burned it. However, the people fled into the surrounding terrain, and the Spaniards could not achieve a conclusive victory. The resulting stalemate lasted years; finally, unable to win definitively, the Spanish agreed to parley. Yanga’s terms were agreed to, with the additional provisos that only Franciscan priests would tend to the people, and that Yanga’s family would be granted the right of rule. In 1618 the treaty was signed and by 1630 the town of San Lorenzo de los Negros de Cerralvo was established. This town, in today’s Veracruz province, remains to this day under the name of Yanga.[57]

1578- In Peru when Francis Drake attacked the city of Lima, the slaves revolted.[58]

1600- Palmares, which eventually became the largest quilombi i.e., community of escaped enslaved Africans founded in Brazil and lasted until 1694.

 

1612- Thirty-six Africans, including seven women, were publicly hanged in the main plaza of Mexico City for plotting an uprising of enslaved Africans to overthrow Spanish rule in Mexico.[59] (Surpressed)

1608- In 1608, there was an abortive rebellion and military confrontation between the Spaniards and enslaved Africans which occurred in such places as Huascaltepec, Rio Blanco, Alvarado, Zongolica and Cuernavaca.  Another revolt in 1608 in Mexico City had been abortive.  Some Afro-Mexicans, both free and enslaved, met clandestinely on Christmas Eve in the home of a free mulatto who organized an uprising.  About 31 conspirators, 24 males and 7 females, were present.  The election of a king and a queen was the first procedural business for the gathering.  Martin was crowned king, a slave born in Africa, who belonged to Baltasar Reyes, who just happened to be the wealthiest man in Mexico City.  The queen was Melchora, a free black woman.  The freedmen involved were shoemakers, servants, butlers, and textile workers.  Most of the individuals involved in the plot worked for the viceroy, the archbishop, and the alguacil mayor. (Supressed)

1625- In El Salvador in 1625, there was an attempted slave rebellion which was aborted.[60]

1611- In 1611, a major plan for revolt was caused by the death of a female slave belonging to Luis Moreno de Monroy, of Mexico City.  The enslaved Africans in the city charged that her maltreatment caused her death.  On the day of her burial, 1500 Afro-Mexicans belonging to the Cofradia de Nuestra Senora took the corpse and marched defiantly through the streets. The crowd carried the body past the royal palace, the Holy Office of the Inquisition, and other public places.  Finally, returning the body to the home of Luis Moreno de Monroy, they then issued threats and hurled stones at the building.  The leader of the Afro-Mexicans was identified as a ladino slave named Diego, an officer in the aforementioned cofradia. This arrest excited the crowd, who decided to kill the Spaniards and loot their houses.  They elected two Angolan slaves, Pablo and his wife Maria, as their king and queen.  The rebellion was set for Christmas day, 1611.  At that time, four companies of infantry bound for the Philippines arrived in Mexico City, and the conspirators decided to postpone the rebellion, but before the revolt could begin the African elected king (leader) died.

1647- Following an earthquake in Chile, an Afro-Indian rebellion was feared in Santiago, as about 400 Africans united behind one of their number, who claimed to be of African royalty.  The Spanish dispersed the Africans and hung their leader.[61]

1695- Slave rebellion and conspiracies in Bahia, Brazil.

1702- Enslaved Africans rebelled against new slave codes in Barbados.

1716- First slave rebellion at Dutch Caribbean colony of Curacao.

1713- In Cuba, enslaved Africans in the copper mines at Jobabo rose up in 1713 and continued to do so sporadically until they were ordered freed in 1798.[63]

 

 

1719- Slave conspiracy in Mina Gerais, Brazil.

1726- In Cuba, as an English fleet maneuvered near Havana, enslaved Africans southwest of the city revolted and burned the sugar mills and other buildings owned by the Conde de Casa Bayona.  Two companies of mounted militia plus other troops were necessary to subdue the rebels.[64]

1727- A slave revolt took place at the sugar mill Quiebra-Hacha in the West of Havana. Cuba.  The uprising took place on the Quiebra-Hacha plantation that was owned by the first Court of Casa Bayona.  The Spanish military had to intervene to stop the revolt.

1730- Juan Andresote, a man of mixed African and Indian ancestry, led a revolt against the commercial policies of the Spanish Viceroyalty of New Granada (modern-day Venezuela).  He led a rebel coalition consisting of fugitive slaves, free blacks and Indians.

1731- Enslaved Afro-Cubans forced Spanish administrators to work the copper mines of Santiago del Prado, also known as El Cobre on the Island of Cuba before they escaped into the mountains. (Victorious)

1733- The 1733 slave insurrection on St. John in the Danish West Indies, (now St. John, United States Virgin Islands) started on November 23, 1733 when African slaves from Akwamu revolted against the owners and managers of the island’s plantations. The slave rebellion was one of the earliest and longest slave revolts in the Americas. The Akwamu slaves captured the fort in Coral Bay and took control of most of the island, intending to resume crop production under their own control using other ethnic Africans as slave labor. The revolt ended in mid-1734 when several hundred French and Swiss troops sent from Martinique defeated the Akwamu.[65] In Venezuela in July, a full-scale extermination campaign was executed along the Yaracuy River.  Jose Francisco, brother of Andresote, was captured and imprisoned, and Jose Cordero was imprisoned for life.  Eight ring leaders (five blacks, one mulatto, and two Indians) were hanged.  An unknown number of the fugitive slaves, cimarrones, and free blacks were seized under suspicion and “were killed under the ley de fuga hung or executed by the sword.[66]

1735- In Orizaba and Cordoba, which also lie in the Veracruz region of Mexico, at least five major insurrections were planned and executed among the remaining slave in the eighteenth century.[67]

1736- Antigua, 30 December 1736. Report to Governor Mathew of an enquiry into the Negro conspiracy. The slaves chiefly concerned were those born on the Gold Coast whom we style coromantees, led by Court a slave of Thomas Kerby; and those born in the colonies who we call creoles, led by Tomboy a master carpenter belonging to Thomas Hanson. Court, we are told, was of a considerable family in his own country, brought here at ten years of age, and covertly assumed among his countrymen here the title of king. Both men were well–treated by their masters, Tomboy being allowed to take negro apprentices and make all the profits he could. The other principals were Hercules, Jack, Scipio, Ned, Fortune and Toney, all creoles except Fortune who was either a Creole or brought here as an infant. The most active incendiaries under Court and Tomboy were Secundi and Jacko, both creoles of French parentage and both initiated into the Roman Catholic religion. Their employments were crafts, overseeing and house–service. When and by whom the design was first begun cannot be certainly fixed; probably it was by Court, and we know that it was in agitation about November 1735. The chief measures taken to corrupt our slaves were entertainments of dancing and feasting under color of innocent pretences; those corrupted were bound by oaths. A new government was to be established when the whites were extirpated: Court was flattered by all with being king, but the creoles had privately resolved to settle a commonwealth and make slaves of the coromantees. . . .

The method first proposed for executing the plot was that Tomboy should procure the making of the seats for a great ball to be held on 11 October last, at which all the people of note in the island would be present. He was to contrive laying gunpowder   in the house to be fired when the dancing was in progress. Three or four parties of 300–400 slaves were to enter the town and put the whites  to the sword; the forts and shipping in the harbor were to be seized. The ball, however, was put off to 30 October, whereupon some conspirators wished to act immediately; but Court persuaded them to defer the action till then. Signs were not wanting of the impending danger, and these led the governor to order an enquiry which led to the discovery of the plot, much owing to the confessions of the various slaves. On the evidence of the facts discovered, the first twelve of the conspirators in the annexed list were executed. Further examination, however, caused us to see that much remained to be done; by various evidences, 35 more enslaved Africans were executed and 42 more, the evidence against them being less full, are recommended for banishment. All those executed or recommended for banishment are known to have taken the oath; this was by drinking a health in liquor with grave dirt and sometimes cock’s blood infused, and sometimes the person swearing laid his hand on a live cock. The general tenor of the oath was to kill the whites. The execution of the first twelve did not break the conspiracy, for at least 50 took the oath on 26 October last after the executions.

1749- In Venezuela Spanish officials discovered a plot involving enslaved Africans in Caracas, other plots on ranches near the city, and fugitive slaves and cimarones living in independent settlements in the mountains.  On the feast of St John the Baptist (June 2), the slaves were to rise, murder all the whites, and take over control of the town.  Under torture, a slave confessed that another bondman, Manuel Espinoss, was the mastermind behind the rebellion.  Several rebels were executed in June 1750, and ten other leaders received heavy lashings, physical mutilations and jail sentences.[68]

1755- In Panama a slave conspiracy was reported by alcalde (chief magistrate) of Porto Bello.  Four of the ringleaders were hung, drawn, and quartered.[69]

1756-  Slave conspiracy at Minas Gerais, Brazil.

1763- The Berbice Slave Uprising was a slave revolt in Guyana. It began in February 1763 and lasted into 1764. The uprising began on Plantation Magdalene berg on the Canje River in Berbice. The slaves rebelled, protesting harsh and inhumane treatment, and took control of the region. As plantation after plantation fell to the slaves, the European population fled. Eventually only about half of the whites who had lived in the colony remained. Led by Cuffy (known as the national hero of Guyana), the rebels came to number about 3,000 and threatened European control over the Guyanas. The insurgents were defeated with the assistance of troops from neighboring French and British colonies and from Europe.[70]

In 1763-54 in Peru Cimarrones operating in the Carabayllo Valley near Lima made some roads unsafe for public traffic.  A large military force lead by Pablo Saenz de Bustamonte, including sixty men from the viceroy’s personal guard, finally crushed the fugitive blacks, executing those considered the most culpable. (Surpressed)

1774- Slave rebellion at French Caribbean colony of Tobago.

1780- Túpac Amaru II was born José Gabriel Condorcanqui in Surimana, Tungasuca, in the province of Cuzco in Peru, and received a Jesuit education at the San Francisco de Borja School, although he maintained a strong identification with the indigenous population. He was a mestizo who claimed to be a direct descendant of the last Inca ruler Túpac Amaru. He had been honored by the Spanish authorities of Peru with the title of Marquis of Oropesa, a position that allowed him some voice and political leverage during Spanish rule. Between 1741 and 1780 Amaru II went into litigation with the Betancur family over the right of succession of the Marquisate of Oropesa and lost the case. In 1760, he married Micaela Bastidas Puyucahua of Afro-Peruvian and indigenous descent. Condorcanqui inherited the caciqueship, or hereditary chiefdom of Tungasuca and Pampamarca from his older brother, governing on behalf of the Spanish governor.  Túpac Amaru was executed in Cuzco May 18, 1781 for leading an indigenous uprising in 1780 against the Spanish in Peru. Although unsuccessful, he later became a mythical figure in the Peruvian struggle for independence and indigenous rights movement and an inspiration to a myriad of causes in Peru.[71]

1788- This conspiracy, known in Brazilian history as the Inconfidencia Mineira, took place in Minas Gerais in 1788 to 1789, and involved members of the region’s wealthy and cultured elites, most of them Brazilian-born. It occurred at a time of difficulties in the region’s economy, connected to the decline of its previously opulent gold mining industry, and of resentment toward the Portuguese government for its oppressive system of taxation, especially the onerous tax on gold. However, while the conspiracy began as a protest against the policies of the metropolitan government, it became an anti-colonial movement. Its intellectual authors, many of whom had studied at the Portuguese university of Coimbra or in France, were inspired by the American Revolution and dreamed of following its example by eliminating Portuguese rule, making Minas Gerais independent, and installing therein a republican form of government. Although it was thwarted before being put into operation, the conspiracy is generally considered the first attempt to overthrow the colonial order in Brazil.

1790- Uprisings in the Territory were common, as they were elsewhere in the Caribbean. The first notable uprising in the British Virgin Islands occurred in 1790, and centered on the estates of Isaac Pickering. It was quickly put down, and the ring leaders were executed. The revolt was sparked by the rumor that freedom had been granted to slaves in England, but that the planters were withholding knowledge of it. The same rumor would also later spark subsequent revolts in 1823, 1827 and 1830.

1791- Led by Toussaint L’Ouverture, a self-educated former domestic slave. Like Jean François and Biassou, he initially fought for the Spanish crown in this period. After the British had invaded Saint-Domingue, L’Ouverture decided to fight for the French if they would agree to free all the slaves. Sonthonax had proclaimed an end to slavery on 29 August 1793. L’Ouverture worked with a French general, Étienne Laveaux, to ensure that all slaves would be freed. He brought his forces over to the French side in May 1794 and began to fight for the French Republic. Many enslaved Africans were attracted to Toussaint’s forces. He insisted on discipline and forbade wholesale slaughter.

Under the military leadership of Toussaint, the forces made up mostly of former slaves succeeded in winning concessions from the British and expelling the Spanish forces. In the end, Toussaint essentially restored control of Saint-Dominguez to France. L’Ouverture was very intelligent, organized and well-spoken. Having made himself master of the island, however, Toussaint did not wish to surrender too much power to France. He began to rule the country as an effectively autonomous entity. L’Ouverture overcame a succession of local rivals (including the Commissioner Sonthonax, a French white man who gained support from many Haitians, angering Toussaint; André Rigaud, a free man of color who fought to keep control of the South; and Comte d’Hédouville. Hédouville forced a fatal wedge between Rigaud and Toussaint before he escaped to France.

Toussaint defeated a British expeditionary force in 1798. In addition, he led an invasion of neighboring Santo Domingo (December 1800), and freed the slaves there on January 3, 1801. In 1801, L’Ouverture issued a constitution for Saint-Dominguez which provided for autonomy and decreed that he would be governor-for-life, calling for black autonomy and a sovereign black state. In response, Napoleon Bonaparte dispatched a large expeditionary force of French soldiers and warships to the island, led by Bonaparte’s brother-in-law Charles Le Clerc, to restore French rule. They were under secret instructions to restore slavery, at least in the formerly Spanish-held part of the island. The numerous French soldiers were accompanied by mulatto troops led by Alexandre Pétion and André Rigaud, mulatto leaders who had been defeated by Toussaint three years earlier. During the struggles, some of Toussaint’s closest allies, including Jean-Jacques Dessalines, defected to Le Clerc.  L’Ouverture was promised his freedom if he agreed to integrate his remaining troops into the French army. L’Ouverture agreed to this in May 1802. He was later deceived, seized by the French and shipped to France. He died months later in prison at Fort-de-Joux in the Jura region.

Farcel leads slave rebellion in British Dominica.

1793- Slave rebellion in French Caribbean colony of Guadeloupe.

1795- Tula leads slave rebellion in Dutch Caribbean colony of Curacao. Bandabou had between 4,000 and 5,000 inhabitants in 1795, mostly enslaved Africans. Tula had been preparing the insurrection for some weeks. On the morning of August 17, 1795, at the Knip plantation of Caspar Lodewijk van Utrecht at Bandabou, Curaçao, Tula led an uprising of 40 to 50 slaves. The slaves met on the square of the plantation and informed van Utrecht they would no longer work for him. He told them to present their complaints to the lieutenant governor at Fort Amsterdam. They left and went from Knip to Lagun, where they freed 22 enslaved Africans from jail. From Lagun, the rebels went to the sugar plantation of Saint Kruis, where they were joined by more rebels under Bastian Karpata. Tula then led the escaped slaves from farm to farm, freeing more slaves.

The slave owners had now retreated to the city, leaving their plantations unprotected. At the same time, a confederate French slave, Louis Mercier, led another group of freed slaves to Saint Kruis, where he took the commandant, van der Grijp, and ten of his mulattos prisoner. Mercier also attacked Knip, where he freed more slaves and took some weapons. He then rejoined Tula, locating him by following the trail of destruction Tula had left behind. The rebels began a guerrilla campaign, poisoning wells and stealing food. On September 19, Tula and Karpata were betrayed by a slave. They were taken prisoner, and the war was effectively over. (Louis Mercier had already been caught at Knip.) After Tula was captured, he was publicly tortured to death on October 3, 1795, almost seven weeks after the revolt began. Karpata, Louis Mercier and Pedro Wakao were also executed. In addition, many slaves had been massacred in the earlier repression. After the revolt had been crushed the Curaçao government formulated rules that defined the rights of slaves on the island.[72]

At the height of the insurrection, there were probably 1,000 rebels. August 17 is still celebrated in Curaçao to commemorate the beginning of a long fight for freedom. When slavery was finally abolished on the island in 1863, there were fewer than 7,000 slaves. There is a monument to Tula and the rebel slaves on the south coast of Curaçao, near the Holiday Beach Hotel. This is the site where Tula was executed.

1795- On October 15, enslaved Africans in Partido de Aguadilla attempted a revolt. The event was followed by strict measures by the Puerto Rican authorities.  In fear of what had happened in Haiti with Toussaint L’Ouverture, Governor Ramon de Castro took preventive measures.  Documents held by the Puerto Rican Government indicate that a Haitian agent arrived in Puerto Rico by the name of Chaulette.  It was later discovered that Chaulette was part of a widespread slave conspiracy for all the Caribbean where slavery existed. (Suppressed)

On May 10, 12 whites were killed and several haciendas burned to the ground.  This caused a large numbers of free blacks, mulattoes, zambos and Indians to join the movement.  The surviving whites barricaded themselves in a church, and the zambo forces attacked for two days, failing to capture the city. The militia arrived and put a end to the insurrection.  By June 171 persons had been executed, and 20 other blacks and mulattoes, and Indians were also executed.

1795- During Jamaica’s Second Maroon War, Trelawney Maroons were deported to Nova Scotia.

1795- In Argentina enslaved Africans believed that the 1789 Codigo negro had freed them.  When in reality it did not reflect the terms of the codigo bondmen in Buenos Aires went on a general strike that was broken up after three days.

1796- In this year, Venezuelan insurrectionary Jose Leonardo Chirino was hanged in Caracas for leading a slave revolt in Spain’s oppressive New World sugar plantations.  On May 10, 1795, Chirino – a Zambo of mixed African and Amerindian blood who was himself a free farmer – led an uprising of the Congolese slaves who worked the sugarcane and declared a Republic under the “Law of the French,” with slavery and white privilege abolished. The rebellion’s attempt on Coro itself failed, and it was swiftly put down by the colonial authorities. Though many involved were killed summarily, the Spanish took their time after capturing Chirino in August 1795: only the following year was he transferred to Caracas for execution, after which his body was dismembered and his head set in an iron cage displayed on the road to Coro.  For good measure, his family was sold into slavery.

1803- In Uruguay twenty black males, all but a few of them slaves, met secretly and agreed to flee Montevideo.  Taking their women children, and possessions, they established an independent settlement on a small island in the River Yi.  Attacked by militia forces near the town of Villa de la Concepcion de Minas, the Africans resisted but were all captured and reenslaved.[73]

1804- In Chile enslaved Africans seized a ship (La Prueba) going from Valparaiso to Callao (Peru).  They killed 24 of the 36 white passengers and attempted to sail for Africa.  On the way they encountered the Perseverance, commanded by a Captain Delano of the United States, who recaptured their vessel.  Nine blacks were condemned to death, their heads later being placed on stakes.[74]

1807- Enslaved Africans were planning a revolt that would take place on May 28, during Corpus Christi celebrations. Six days before the revolt would take place they were betrayed by a slave loyal to his master. The master went to the governor who was skeptical about the situation. However, he sent his spies out into the community and he learned that a subversive plan was real and growing stronger as the 28th approached. A day before the rebellion was to take place the governor mounted specific patrols in the city. With its exits and entrances under surveillance, and rural officers on the roads, the house that was the center of the planning was surrounded and searched.  After being searched the alleged leaders and captains were taken prisoner. Many weapons were confiscated from the house, such as: four hundred arrows, a bundle of rods to be used as bows, piles of rope, knives, and one shotgun. Rural officers caught three of the ringleaders who had fled earlier that afternoon, and military patrols on rounds caught a few more identified as agents or enticers. The goal of the uprising is believed to have been to capture ships in the harbor and make a massive flight back to Africa.

1812- Jose Antonio was a free Black commander who organized a slave rebellion to overturn slavery in Spanish rule.  The 1812 Rebellion was actually a series of rebellions collectively called the Aponte Rebellion.  The revolt was one of the largest and important revolts in Cuban history.  The revolt erupted at the Penas-Atlas plantation outside of Havana, Cuba.  A free black man named Juan Barbier also accompanied Antonio Aponte with the revolts.  Juan Barbier was later captured and hung.

In 1812 a conspiracy was discovered in the Puerto Rico capital San Juan Bautista during the Christmas festivities.  The rumor was that the Spanish Cortes Extraordinaire slaves to be free.  Surrounding areas also heard the same rumor.  In Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Santo Domingo enslaved African began to revolt and demanded their freedom until the authorities brought the situations under control.

1814- The rebellion in Brazil overshadowed the previous ones in numbers of participants and violence.  Starting on February 28, slave fishermen began to burn down part of the harbor, killing the foreman and most of his family. The rebels proceeded to head to the village of Itapúa. Resistance was met when they were trying to leave to go the next village. Troops from Salvador then encountered a bloody battle with the rebels, which left the rebels with fifty less men.  Four of the captured slaves were hanged in public and twelve were deported to Portuguese colonies in Africa.

1816- An African-born enslaved man called Bussa [Akan] led the rebellion on Barbados. Very little is known about him, except that he was a ranger at the Bayley plantation in St. Philip. A ranger was the head officer among the enslaved workers on an estate. He would have to look after boundaries and fences and deal with the day-to-day business arising between the estates. This meant that rangers travelled throughout the area. It is likely that Bussa enjoyed the confidence and respect of both the black community and plantation owners.  Bussa planned the uprising with people from the different estates. This included Jackey, the driver at the Simmons estate, King Wiltshire, a carpenter at Bayley’s and Nanny Grigg, a literate domestic at Simmons.  The uprising started at Bayley’s estate. It was an attempt by the enslaved people to change the society on Barbados. They believed that Barbados belonged to them and wanted their Freedom from the plantation owners. Bussa commanded about 400 men and women against the troops. These included the West India Regiment, an all-black branch of the British Army. He was killed in battle and his troops continued to fight until they were defeated by superior firepower. One white civilian and one black soldier were killed during the fighting. Compared to this, 50 enslaved people died in battle and 70 were executed in the field. Another 300 were taken to Bridgetown for trial, of which 144 were executed and 132 sent away.  In Barbados on the night of Easter Sunday April 14, 1816, a slave revolt erupted that lasted for two days. Prior to the 1816 uprising, the last recorded serious alarm of Barbados’s whites concerning the possibility of an insurrection occurred in late 1701. During the latter half of the 17th century, however, white fears of possible rebellion were common, several serious alarms occurred, and in 1675 and 1692 major insurrectionary plots were discovered before the plans could be realized.

1823- The Demerara rebellion of 1823 was an uprising involving more than 10,000 slaves that took place in the former Crown colony of Demerara-Essequibo (now part of Guyana).  The rebellion resulted in the deaths of many slaves; estimates of the toll range from 100 to 250. The rebellion, and especially the death, on death row, of a British parson, had a strong impact on Britain, and on the abolitionists’ movement to emancipate slaves after the slave trade was banned in 1807. After his deportation, Jack Gladstone, leader of one of the slave revolts, helped bring attention to the plight of sugar plantation slaves, accelerating the abolition of slavery. Quamina was declared a national hero, and there are streets and monuments in Guyana dedicated to him in its capital, Georgetown.

1825- In June 1825 the Cuban countryside witnessed a large African-led slave rebellion-a revolt that began a cycle of slave uprisings lasting until the mid-1840s. Unlike previous slave revolts—led by alliances between free people of color and slaves, blacks and mulattoes, Africans and Creoles, and rural and urban populations—only African-born men organized the uprising of 1825. Rebels planned the revolt by using their African languages as a base for organizing Africans on the plantations. The rebels used spears, machetes, and clubs to fight against their enemies.  They used tactics familiar in African warfare.  The June 1825 revolt was the first African-led rebellion that involved hundred of rebels that came from mixed African ethnic backgrounds.  Once the revolt was on the way, some of the leaders dressed themselves in bright and colorful clothing taken from the Whites.  The rebels moved from plantation-to-plantation, torching, killing, and beating their drums. From this year onwards, slave uprisings in Cuba underwent a phase of Africanization that concluded only in the mid-1840s with the conspiracy of La Escalera, a large movement organized by free colored men with ample participation of the slave population.

1827- In September of 1827 a slave named Rafael Ganga fought his master with five other slaves.  This rebellion became a full blown revolt.

 

In September of 1832, a group of Lucumis[75] slaves revolted near Havana, Cuba.

1835- The Muslim Slave revolt in 1835 began January 24, 1835 by rebellion organizers, Malês, or Muslim Africans. The revolt took place in the streets of Salvador and lasted for three hours. During that time seventy people were killed and more than five hundred were sentenced to death, imprisoned, whipped or deported. Reis argues that if you bring these numbers into today’s times, with Salvador being 1.5 million, over twelve thousand people would be sentenced to some form of punishment. Within these hearings, Africans spoke out about their rebellion as well as about their cultural, social, religious and domestic lives. The testimonies from court and the oppressors’ descriptions of these Africans that were enslaved brought out “priceless testimonies” of African culture in the Americas.

1843-  Slave rebellions in Venezuela and Colombia.

1848-  In the British Virgin Islands a major disturbance occurred in the Territory. The causes of the disturbance were several. A revolt of slaves was occurring in St. Croix, which increased the general fervour in the islands, but the free people of Tortola were much more concerned with two other grievances: the appointment of public officials, and the crackdown on smuggling. Although Tortola had sixteen colored public officials, all except one were “foreigners” from outside the Territory. During the period of economic decline, smuggling had been one of the few lucrative sources of employment, and recent laws which imposed stringent financial penalties (with hard labor for non-payment) were unpopular. The anger was directed against the magistrates by the small shop keepers, and they concentrated their attack on the stipendiary magistrate, Isidore Dyett. However, Dyett was popular with the rural population, who respected him for protecting them from unscrupulous planters. The ringleaders of the insurrection had supposed that their attack would lead to a general revolt, but their choice of Dyett as a target robbed them of popular support, and the disturbance eventually fizzled.

St. Croix – Thousands of slaves put their lives on the line 157 years earlier to fight for freedom in a well-planned rebellion that would change the course of history for the Virgin Islands, then known as the Danish West Indies. On July 3, 1848, slaves carefully executed a yearlong plan to demand their freedom on the streets of Frederiksted town – and won. Much of what has been written about Moses “Buddhoe” Gottlieb, the free black who led the 1848 slave rebellion on St. Croix, is shrouded in controversy, but historians agree the Emancipation Proclamation that followed stands as a seminal point in Virgin Islands history. According to historical accounts, the uprising by St. Croix slaves, particularly on the western end of the island, began on the evening of July 2, 1848, with hundreds of slaves assembling outside Fort Frederik, Frederiksted. The slaves declared they would not be working the next day and shouted for their freedom. By the next morning thousands of slaves had gathered. Some 2,000 of them marched into Frederiksted from the northwest and north coast estates, joining others from Ham’s Bluff and other estates along Centerline Road.

According to historical accounts, by 10 a.m. about 8,000 slaves had gathered in front of the fort demanding their freedom. Shortly after 1 p.m. on July 3, a message from the fort commander in Frederiksted reached Gov. Gen. Peter von Scholten. It read: “All the Negroes in this part of the country are in revolt; all over, bells are ringing.” It is not known if the bells and blowing of conch shells signaled for more slaves to gather or if planters were warning others of the uprising. Many West End plantation owners fled their estates for the security of the fort.

During the uprising, there were few reports of violence, thanks to Buddhoe, who stopped the slaves from rioting and kept them focused on obtaining their freedom. Messages were sent from Danish authorities to von Scholten, begging him to come to Frederiksted since it was clear that if the enslaved Africans became hostile, they would burn the town and kill every white person within reach. The enslaved African gave von Scholten a 4 p.m. deadline to liberate them. Realizing that the enslaved Africans were serious and not just venting frustration, he ordered that his horse-driven carriage be made ready and he set sail for Frederiksted. One historical account states that once von Schoolmen arrived in Frederiksted, he immediately went into the fort to be briefed on the events. He looked outside the fort and saw more than 8,000 slaves silently awaiting his decision. Von Schoolmen walked to a commanding post, which is now the clock area, and announced: “Alle unfrie paa de Danske Vestindiske oer ere fra dags dato frigivne” emancipating the slaves.

1853- However, the insurrection of 1853 was a far more serious affair, and would have much graver and more lasting consequences in the Virgin Islands. Arguably it was the single most defining event in the islands’ history. Taxation and economics was also at the root of that disturbance. In March 1853, Robert Hawkins and Joshua Jordan, both Methodist missionaries, petitioned the Assembly to be relieved on taxes. The Assembly rejected the request, and Jordan is said to have replied “we will raise the people against you.” Subsequent meetings fostered the general discontent. Then in June 1853 the legislature enacted a head tax on cattle in the Territory. Injudiciously, the tax was to come into effect on 1 August, the anniversary of emancipation. The burden of the tax would fall most heavily on the rural colored community. There was no violent protest when the Act was passed, and it has been suggested that rioting could have been avoided if the legislature had been more circumspect in enforcing it, although the   historical background suggests that insurrection was never far away, and only needed a reason to spark into life.

1879- Afro-Peruvian Slave Revolt on the Hacienda San José, a sugar plantation, which  was built in 1868 in El Carmen, Perú, lasted until a rebellion of more than 300 enslaved Afro-Peruvian in 1879. The slave owner was hacked to death by machete-wielding slaves on the principal stair entrance. Descendants of these enslaved Africans slaves still populate the area.  (Victorious)

1886- This year marked the end of slavery in Cuba.  Under the terms of the Pact of Zanjón, which ended the “The Ten Year War” in 1878, slaves who fought on either side of the war were set free, but those who did not fight had to endure almost  another decade of slavery.  Two years later the Spanish Cortes approved an abolition law (1880)  that provided for an eight-year period of patron to (tutelage) for all slaves liberated according to the law. This only amounted to indentured servitude, as slaves were required to spend those 8 years working for their masters at no charge. On October 7 1886, slavery was finally abolished in Cuba by a royal decree that also made the patron to illegal. At the time of emancipation, most enslaved were employed on plantations, and most free black Cubans were women who lived in the cities.

1888- Brazil abolishes slavery. Brazil had the largest slave population in the world,substantially larger than the United States. Pedro II was a ruler of Portugal. He came to see slavery, despite its economic importance to Brazil as inherently evil.  Pedro began a series of measures liberating Brazilian slaves. He was poised to entirely abolish slavery. His measures against slavery met opposition from major landowners and the military, the leadership of which was drawn from the landed elite. The Emperor was on a trip to Europe when his daughter, Princess Isabel serving as regent, issued a decree abolishing slavery (May 13, 1888). A great deal of pressure came from England and recent immigrants to Brazil, who could not compete with slave labor. Princess Isabella’s decree is known as the Golden Law. It was widely praised in Europe. Abolishing slavery was the last major action taken by the Brazilian royal family. Brazil proved to be the last Western Hemisphere country to abolish slavery.  Also, important to the abolition of slavery in Brazil was that enslaved Africans simply walked off the plantation in mass actions of self-emancipation.

Countries that Successfully fought of Western imperialism or avoided it

Countries that fought it off.

  1. Japan

Japan was one of the only Asian countries to escape Western colonization, becoming a colonizing power itself in the region. As the country fought against foreign influence and intrusion, only the Dutch and Chinese managed to set up trading ports in Japan, despite the efforts of other nations. Japan, for its part, set up spheres of influence in the surrounding islands, as well as in Korea, Taiwan, and South Sakhalin. –

2. Nepal
Since Nepal was united by King Prithvi Narayan Shah in 1744 C.E., it has existed as a sovereign nation. While it was briefly a protectorate of Great Britain, it was never a British colony, even fighting a war and ceding a third of its territory to ensure its continued autonomy from the empire. It is thought that Nepal’s isolated geographical position high in the Himalayas helped it withstand colonial rule, though it is agreed that both India and China exerted some influence in the region.

3. Afghanistan

Eastern Afghanistan and western Pakistan, the region in which Pathans have traditionally lived in is the gateway to India. All the invaders (Alexander, Mongols, Turks, etc.) used the numerous passes in the mountains lining the Durrand Line to attack India. This automatically put Pathans in a continuously hostile environment which in my opinion developed their warfare skills. Their cultural code of Pashtunwali (which predates Islam) requires Pathans to be brave, outspoken and strong.
1. Landscape: Pashtuns or Pathans (Pathan is a subcontinent nomenclature for Pashtuns) have been living in remote, rigid, and harsh terrains since thousands of years. These merciless environments invariably have affected their genome over time and is also an indicator of the nurturing habitats that the kids are raised in. For survival, confident and brave attitudes are naturally and culturally preferred, while bashful attitudes are weeded out. Hence, a less-dynamic yet overarching trait of adamancy surfaces in Pashtuns. Mind you, this trait does lead to rash decision-making skills, yet it is a survival skill honed for centuries.

2. Nomadic Nature: Essentially, the areas where Pashtuns have resided since centuries have been highly inaccessible. So, although it was part of the silk route, only those who werebrave enough were able to and chose to stay there. Yet, this residency was not tied down with agriculture since very little land is actually arable hence promoting a nomadic lifestyle. Pashtuns over time found a perfect balance and adequate survival skills (such as laandi–beef jerky–a common meat dehydration process… really tasty btw!)

3. Inter-tribal, inter-ethnic, and international conflicts: Pashtuns are known for not backing out with an aggressive attitude. This valorous doggedness has made Pashtuns belligerents in numerous wars and conflicts throughout history, from inter-tribal wars since medieval times and the renaissance period, to various dynasties that gathered several ethnicities under a centralized government, which lead to the creation of Afghanistan.(Pashtuns currently residing in Pakistan were part of Afghanistan until 1893, when the British decided to mess it up by dividing the Pashtuns in half. but that’s a story for another day) Pashtuns have also been heavily involved in international wars with the British, the Soviets, and so many more. I’ll cut it short here by saying, Pashtuns have been at war for a huge portion of history. A common knowledge to the people of that region is that Pashtuns have never been conquered in history. Although, I feel it is important to add here that Pashtuns do not fight just for the sake of fighting or capitalizing on resource gains, but rather fight to defend. I’ll add more of this in the next point.

4. Pashtunwali: In layman terms, Pashtunwali is a way of life. A sacred way of life. It is the thread that holds all Pashtuns together. It’s conception predates the Islamic era and most Pashtuns tout their pride of being born a Pashtun and then as a Muslim. The central idea here is that: A Pashtun has to abide by Pashtunwali code of life. Several of key Pashtunwali traits that add to Pashtunwali are:

1.Turah (Bravery). This couldn’t be anymore straightforward. Bravery is embedded into our code of life!
2. Ghayrat (Courage) Preserving pride, honor, and respect is a core principle. Failure to adhere to this principle leads to ostracism from the tribe.

The above two principles come in direct contact with bravery, while the rest of the principles relate in some way to bravery. Also, from the third main point about being belligerents in numerous wars, I’d like to add the following: Pashtuns are known for their gentle and welcoming hearts. Pashtuns innately want peace and harmony and will defend their rights till death. A persevering attitude does not equate to violent intent but rather a Pashtun way of attaining peace. Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, a major proponent of peace and one of Gandhi’s closest friends (some say he was his study buddy and shared reading glasses) has been largely ignored by historians. Khan, also known as Fakhr-e-Afghan or the Afghan pride, was imprisoned and persecuted in Pakistan by the Pakistani government. In essence, the Pathans or Pashtun are brave people as a nation due to various reasons, and I think that on the individual intimate level it boils down to personalities rather more.

4. Bhutan
Bhutan is one of the few countries that has indisputably maintained complete sovereignty throughout history, even before its official consolidation as a nation state in 1616. Though it did have to fight several wars against the British during the 18th and 19th centuries, subsequently losing bits of its territory and political influence outside of its borders, Bhutan remained entirely autonomous throughout the colonial period

5. Iran
Iran suffered during the 1800s as the Russians and British fought to build their empires in the Middle East, but was never subjugated to colonization in any official sense. The country did lose some of its territory during the Russo-Persian and Anglo-Persian Wars, and was briefly occupied by the Russians in 1911 and the British during World War I, but was still considered an autonomous state throughout history

6. Ethiopia
Apart from a five-year period when Ethiopia fell to Mussolini’s New Roman Empire, Ethiopia has maintained its autonomy throughout history. The Italians were ejected by the British in 1941, and Ethiopia regained its full independent status in 1944, but had existed independently way before then. Even during the Italian occupation from 1936 to 1941, Mussolini’s troops were under constant attack from Ethiopian guerrilla troops and Italy never maintained full order in the country.

7. Vietnam

Vietnam Fought off China, Japan, France, America and chased the Khmer Rouge out of Cambodia

 

Countries that were ignored by Western Imperialists

 

8. Tonga
In 1900, Tonga became a protected state under the Treaty of Friendship with Britain, setting up a British Consul in the state until 1970, but no higher permanent representative was permitted. The indigenous monarchy of Tonga has been maintained until the present day, and has enjoyed an uninterrupted succession of hereditary rulers from the same family since its inception.

Countries that were ignored but were colonized by non Western Powers

9. Korea
Back when Korea existed as one nation state, it resisted colonial rule from Western powers. It is somewhat difficult to consider Korea wholly independent throughout history, however, as it was under Japanese rule for more than 30 years until independence in 1945 during World War II. But in the lens of resisting Western colonization, Korea is said to have maintained its independence from European rule throughout history

10. Thailand

 

Thailand is well aware of its unique heritage that does not include a colonial legacy, and often uses the phrase “land of the freedom” to express pride in the fact that it has remained Thai-dominated since the first millennia B.C. Despite immense pressure from European powers, Thailand escaped colonial rule by maintaining strong rulers and exploiting the tension between colonizing powers – namely France and Great Britain – which had spheres of influence across neighboring countries in Asia

11. Dominican Republic

Received independence from Haiti

Neutralized 

12. Paraguay

One remarkable trace of the indigenous Guaraní culture that has endured in Paraguay is the Guaraní language which is generally understood by 95% of the population. Additionally, Spanish is understood by about 90 percent of the population, which alongside Guaraní is an official language

 

The Worst Colonizers of Africa

  1. Arabs

Some historians estimate that between A.D. 650 and 1900, 10 to 20 million people were enslaved by Arab slave traders. Others believe over 20 million enslaved Africans alone had been delivered through the trans-Sahara route alone to the Islamic world.

Dr. John Alembellah Azumah in his 2001 book, The Legacy of Arab-Islam in Africa estimates that over 80 million Black people more died en route.

The Arab slave trade typically dealt in the sale of castrated male slaves. Black boys between the age of 8 and 12 had their scrotums and penises completely amputated to prevent them from reproducing. About six of every 10 boys  bled to death during the procedure, according to some sources, but the high price brought by eunuchs on the market made the practice profitable.

Some men were castrated to be eunuchs in domestic service and the practice of neutering male slaves was not limited to only Black males. “The calipha in Baghdad at the beginning of the 10th Century had 7,000 black eunuchs and 4,000 white eunuchs in his palace,” writes author Ronald Segal in his 2002 book, Islam’s Black Slaves: The Other Black Diaspora.

In the beginning there was some level of mutual respect between the Blacks and the more lighter skinned Arabs. However,  as Islam and the demand for enslaved Blacks grew, so did racism toward Africans.

As casual association with Black skin and slave began to be established, racist attitudes towards Blacks began to manifest in Arabic language and literature. The word for slave – Abid – became a colloquialism for African. Other words such as Haratin express social inferiority of Africans.

The eastern Arab slave trade dealt primarily with African women, maintaining a ratio of two women for each man. These women and young girls were used by Arabs and other Asians as concubines and menials.

A Muslim slaveholder was entitled by law to the sexual enjoyment of his slave women. Filling the harems of wealthy Arabs, African women bore them a host of children.

This abuse of African women would continue for nearly 1, 200 years. The Arab slave trade in the 19th century was economically tied to the European trade of Africans. New opportunities of exploitation were provided by the transatlantic slave trade and this sent Arab slavers into overdrive.

The Portuguese (on the Swahili coast) profited directly and were responsible for a boom in the Arab trade. Meanwhile on the West African coast, the Portuguese found Muslim merchants entrenched along the African coast as far as the Bight of Benin. These European enslavers found they could make considerable amounts of gold transporting enslaved Africans from one trading post to another, along the Atlantic coast

The Arab slave trade was the longest yet least discussed of the two major slave trades. It began in seventh century as Arabs and other Asians poured into northern and eastern Africa under the banner of Islam. The Arab trade of Blacks in Southeast Africa predates the European transatlantic slave trade by 700 years. Some scholars say the Arab slave trade continued in one form or another up until the 1960s, however, slavery in Mauritania was criminalized as recently as August 2007.Arab Slave Trade Not Limited To Africa or Skin Color

One of the biggest differences between the Arab slave trade and European slaving was that the Arabs drew slaves  from all racial groups. During the eighth and ninth centuries of the Fatimid Caliphate, most of the slaves were Europeans (called Saqaliba), captured along European coasts and during wars.

Aside from those of African origins, people from a wide variety of regions were forced into Arab slavery, including Mediterranean people; Persians; people from the Caucasus mountain regions (such as Georgia, Armenia and Circassia) and parts of Central Asia and Scandinavia;  English, Dutch and Irish; and Berbers from North Africa.

2. The Belgians  (The Belgians were the worst European Colonizers, they ruled the Congo and Rwanda

The Aftermath – Poverty, and Divisions that were created by the Hutus and Tutsis that resulted in the Rwandan genocide)

The empire was unlike those of the major European imperial powers in that roughly 98% of it was just one colony (about 76 times larger than Belgium) — the Belgian Congo — which had originated as the personal property of the country’s king,Leopold II, rather than being gained through the political or military action of the Belgian state.

Belgians tended to refer to their overseas possessions as “the colonies” rather than “the empire”.[a] Unlike other countries of the period with foreign colonies, such as Britain or Germany,

Colonial rule in the Congobegan in the late 19th century.King Leopold II of the Belgianspersuaded the government to support colonial expansion around the then-largely unexplored Congo Basin. Their ambivalence resulted in Leopold’s creating a colony on his own account. With support from a number of Western countries, Leopold achieved international recognition for a personal colony, the Congo Free State, in 1885.[5] By the turn of the century, however, the violence used by Free State officials against indigenous Congolese and a ruthless system of economic exploitation led to intense diplomatic pressure on Belgium to take official control of the country, which it did in 1908, creating the Belgian Congo.[6]

Belgian rule in the Congo was based on the “colonial trinity” (trinité coloniale) of state,missionary and private company interests.[7] The privileging of Belgian commercial interests meant that large amounts of capital flowed into the Congo and that individual regions becamespecialised. On many occasions, the interests of the government and private enterprise became closely tied, and the state helped companies break strikes and remove other barriers raised by the indigenous population.[7] The country was split into nesting, hierarchically organised administrative subdivisions, and run uniformly according to a set “native policy” (politique indigène). This was in contrast to the British and the French, who generally favoured the system of indirect rulewhereby traditional leaders were retained in positions of authority under colonial oversight. The Congo had a high degree of racial segregation. The large numbers of white immigrants who moved to the Congo after the end ofWorld War II came from across the social spectrum, but were always treated as superior to black people.[8]

During the 1940s and 1950s, the Congo had extensive urbanisation, and the colonial administration began various development programmes aimed at making the territory into a “model colony”.[9] One of the results was the development of a new middle class of Europeanised African “évolués” in the cities.[9] By the 1950s the Congo had a wage labour force twice as large as that in any other African colony.[10]

In 1960, as the result of a widespread and increasingly radical pro-independence movement, the Congo achieved independence, becoming theRepublic of Congo-Léopoldville under Patrice Lumumba and Joseph Kasa-Vubu. Poor relations between factions within the Congo, the continued involvement of Belgium in Congolese affairs, and intervention by major parties of the Cold War led to a five-year-long period of war and political instability, known as the Congo Crisis, from 1960 to 1965. This ended with the seizure of power by Joseph-Désiré Mobutu.

3. Germans

Through 1893 and 1894, the first “Hottentot Uprising” of the Nama and their legendary leader Hendrik Witbooi occurred. The following years saw many further local uprisings against German rule. Before the Herero and Namaqua Genocide of 1904–1907, the Herero and Nama had good reasons to distrust the Germans, culminating in the Khaua-Mbandjeru Rebellion. This rebellion, in which the Germans tried to control the Khaua by seizing their property by artificially imposing European legal views of property ownership, led to the largest of the rebellions, known as the Herero Wars (or Herero Genocide) of 1904.

Remote farms were attacked, and approximately 150 German settlers were killed. The Schutztruppe of only 766 troops and native auxiliary forces was, at first, no match for the Herero. The Herero went on the offensive, sometimes surroundingOkahandja and Windhoek, and destroying the railway bridge to Osona. Additional 14,000 troops, hastened from Germany under Lieutenant General Lothar von Trotha, crushed the rebellion in the Battle of Waterberg.

Earlier von Trotha issued an ultimatum to the Herero people, denying them the right of being German subjects and ordering them to leave the country, or be killed. To escape, the Herero retreated into the waterless Omaheke region, a western arm of the Kalahari Desert, where many of them died of thirst. The German forces guarded every water source and were given orders to shoot any adult male Herero on sight. Only a few Herero managed to escape into neighbouring British territories.[6]

Nama POWs in 1904.

The German official military report on the campaign lauded the tactics:

This bold enterprise shows up in the most brilliant light the ruthless energy of the German command in pursuing their beaten enemy. No pains, no sacrifices were spared in eliminating the last remnants of enemy resistance. Like a wounded beast the enemy was tracked down from one water-hole to the next, until finally he became the victim of his own environment. The arid Omaheke [desert] was to complete what the German army had begun: the extermination of the Herero nation.

— Bley, 1971: 162

In late 1904, the Nama entered the struggles against the colonial power under their leaders Hendrik Witbooi and Jakobus Morenga, the latter often referred to as “the black Napoleon“. This uprising was finally quashed during 1907–1908. In total, between 25,000 and 100,000 Herero, more than 10,000 Nama and 1,749 Germans died in the conflict.

After the official end of the conflict, the remaining natives, when finally released from detention, were subject to a policy of dispossession, deportation, forced labour, and racial segregation and discrimination in a system that in many ways anticipated apartheid. The genocide remains relevant to ethnic identity in independent Namibia and to relations with Germany.[7]

The Germans maintained a number of concentration camps in the colony during their war against the Herero and Nama peoples. Besides these camps the indigenous people were interned in other places. These included private businesses and government projects,[8] ships offshore,[9][10][11] Etappenkommando in charge of supplies of prisoners to companies, private persons, etc., as well as any other materials. Concentration camps implies poor sanitation and a population density that would imply disease.[12] Prisoners were used as slave labourers in mines and railways, for use by the military or settlers.[13][14][15]

The Herero and Namaqua genocide has been recognised by the United Nations and by the Federal Republic of Germany. On the 100th anniversary of the camp’s foundation, German Minister for Economic Development and Cooperation Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul commemorated the dead on-site and apologised for the camp on behalf of Germany.[16][17]

 

4. Portuguese

 

To a much greater extent than those of other European colonial powers, Portugal’s African empire was woven deeply into the culture, politics, and economics of the metropole. Long after the more developed and industrialized states of Europe had decolonized, Portugal maintained its narrow centralized form of rule––from Mozambique to Angola in the south and from Guinea-Bissau in the west to the Atlantic archipelagos of Cape Verde and São Tomé and Príncipe. It did not do so easily; the last decade and a half of Portugal’s imperial presence––from the early 1960s until the final collapse of the empire in the mid-1970s––was marked by guerrilla warfare in the three continental territories and anticolonial agitation in the islands. The Lisbon regime’s official justification for this apparently irrational behavior was that Portugal’s five-hundred-year presence in Africa was part of a sacred national vocation. Portugal, in fact, was not a “colonial power”––or even, in a sense, a “European” one; it was a “pluricontinental” entity defined by language, culture, and history. There was in effect no empire, just “one state, single and indivisible” (um estado, uno e indivisível) parts of which were “overseas provinces” (províncias ultramarinas). This semi-mystical doctrine of “lusotropicalism” asserted that Portugal’s unique history and culture enabled it to transcend its continental limits to spread across the non-European world. The organization of this article reflects this self-conceived Portuguese sense of imperial exceptionalism. While the reality of the notion has been challenged (primarily by non-Portuguese writers), it was an article of faith among Portuguese imperial policymakers and a potent propaganda tool of successive governments––before and even since the 1974 revolution and decolonization. The bibliography also reflects the fact that “Portuguese colonial rule” was primarily a phenomenon of the 19th and 20th centuries. While there had been a Portuguese presence in Africa since the late 15th century in the form of coastal fortifications and Creole settlements, this could not properly be considered control from the metrople. In this sense Africa came relatively late in the narrative of Portuguese state imperialism. It was the “third” empire (o terceiro império) following the first in Asia (where Portugal was largely displaced by the Dutch in the 17th century) and the second in the Americas (which effectively ended with Brazil’s declaration of independence in 1822). While numerous works cited here deal with the earlier period of the Portuguese presence (see also the related Oxford Bibliographiesarticles on Kongo and the Coastal States of West Central Africa, Angola, Mozambique, and Guinea Bissau), the principal focus is on the age of formalized control by the Portuguese state from the mid-19th century. After initial sections which consider general overviews, reference works, and bibliographies, the uniquely close interconnections between the African presence and European domestic concerns is explored in a section covering relevant publications on the Portuguese “nation,” broadly defined. The longer history of Portugal’s presence in Africa is then considered, followed by sections on the age of the “scramble” for Africa, the 20th century, the (contested) economic aspect of Portugal’s experience in Africa, the liberation wars, and then the international response to Portugal’s colonial policies. The subsequent sections deal in turn with each of the component parts of Portuguese Africa: Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde, and São Tomé and Príncipe. In the cases of first two––the larger continental territories––the entries are divided into sections dealing respectively with the generalities of the colonial experience and with nationalist resistance. The final section covers the febrile process of decolonization and the transfers of power to the new regimes in Africa which followed the sudden collapse of the authoritarian state in Lisbon in April 1974.

Central to Portugal’s assertion of its unique position in Africa was the long––and largely uninterrupted––duration of its presence in the continent. The now classic Boxer 1991 chronicles the history of Portuguese expansion from the 15th to the early 19th centuries in which Africa plays a significant role. The Birmingham 2004 collection is more tightly focused on the presence in Africa as is Chilcote 1967 (which offers a continuous narrative rather than, as in Birmingham’s book, individual studies). Finally, the social and cultural underpinning of Portuguese imperial doctrine––lusotropicalism––can be explored in the collection Freyre 1960, by its founding philosopher, the Brazilian anthropologist Gilberto Freyre.

 

5 . French

80% of the 10 countries with the lowest literacy rates in the WORLD among adults are in francophone Africa.

Namely: Benin (40%), Burkina Faso (26%), Chad (34%), Côte d’Ivoire (49%), Guinea (29%), Mali (23%), Niger (29%), and Senegal (42%).

This spectacular result is achieved after over 150 years of French colonization!

During the almost 200 years of French colonization in Africa and Asia, France has built only ONE university in their entire colonies. It was in Indochina.

After 150 years of French colonization of CAR (Central African Republic) there was only ONE person with a PhD degree when the country became independent in 1960.

However, France continues to collect rent on the colonial buildings they have left in these countries, and 14 african countries are still forced nowadays by France to pay colonial tax for the benefits of slavery and colonization.

Imagine the US still paying RENT to the British for the White House for instance, or Russia to collect rent from the vast public housing they have built through eastern europe during soviet union occupation.

Now take note of this. When Eastern European countries got their independence in the 90s from the Soviet Union Empire, ALL those countries without exception achieved 100% literacy rate, thousands of well trained engineers, doctors, many universities, etc. and lot of housing, transportation and energy infrastructure,…

Even today, after 20 years of these eastern europe countries independence, 99% of schools, universities, houses, transportation system, energy infrastructures in those countries are the ones left by the Soviet Union Empire.

Soviet Union occupation of those countries lasted only 50 years. Now, go to Africa, and check what the WEST left after 500 years of occupation and colonization!

When Sékou Touré of Guinea decided in 1958 to get out of french colonial empire, and opted for the country independence, the french colonial elite in Paris got so furious, and in a historic act of fury the french administration in Guinea destroyed everything in the country which represented what they called the benefits from french colonization.

Three thousand French left the country, taking all their property and destroying anything that which could not be moved: schools, nurseries, public administration buildings were crumbled; cars, books, medicine, research institute instruments, tractors were crushed and sabotaged; horses, cows in the farms were killed, and food in warehouses were burned or poisoned.

The purpose of this outrageous act was to send a clear message to all other colonies that the consequences for rejecting France would be very high.

Slowly fear spread trough the african elite, and none after the Guinea events ever found the courage to follow the example of Sékou Touré, whose slogan was “We prefer freedom in poverty to opulence in slavery.”

Sylvanus Olympio, the first president of the Republic of Togo, a tiny country in west Africa, found a middle ground solution with the French.He didn’t want his country to continue to be a french dominion, therefore he refused to sign the colonisation continuation pact De Gaule proposed, but agree to pay an annual debt to France for the so called benefits Togo got from french colonization.

It was the only conditions for the French not to destroy the country before leaving. However, the amount estimated by France was so big that the reimbursement of the so called “colonial debt” was close to 40% of the country budget in 1963.

The financial situation of the newly independent Togo was very unstable, so in order to get out the situation, Olympio decided to get out the french colonial money FCFA (the franc for french african colonies), and issue the country own currency.

On January 13, 1963, three days after he started printing his country own currency, a squad of illiterate soldiers backed by France killed the first elected president of newly independent Africa. Olympio was killed by an ex French Foreign Legionnaire army sergeant called Etienne Gnassingbe who supposedly received a bounty of $612 from the local French embassy for the hit man job.

Olympio’s dream was to build an independent and self-sufficient and self-reliant country. But the French didn’t like the idea.

On June 30, 1962, Modiba Keita , the first president of the Republic of Mali, decided to withdraw from the  french colonial currency FCFA which was imposed on 12 newly independent African countries. For the Malian president, who was leaning more to a socialist economy, it was clear that colonisation continuation pact with France was a trap, a burden for the country development.

On November 19, 1968, like, Olympio, Keita will be the victim of a coup carried out by another ex French Foreign legionnaire, the Lieutenant Moussa Traoré.

In fact during that turbulent period of African fighting to liberate themselves from European colonization, France would repeatedly use many ex Foreign legionnaires to carry out coups against elected presidents:

  • – On January 1st, 1966, Jean-Bédel Bokassa, an ex french foreign legionnaire, carried a coup against David Dacko, the first President of the Central African Republic.
  • – On January 3, 1966, Maurice Yaméogo, the first President of the Republic of Upper Volta, now called Burkina Faso, was victim of a coup carried by Aboubacar Sangoulé Lamizana, an ex French legionnaire who fought with french troops in Indonesia and Algeria against these countries independence.
  • – on 26 October 1972, Mathieu Kérékou who was a security guard to President Hubert Maga, the first President of the Republic of Benin, carried a coup against the president, after he attended French military schools from 1968 to 1970.

In fact, during the last 50 years, a total of 67 coups happened in 26 countries in Africa, 16 of those countries are french ex-colonies, which means 61% of the coups happened in Francophone Africa.

Number of Coups in Africa by country

Ex French colonies  Other African countries
Country  Number of coup Country number of coup
Togo 1 Egypte 1
Tunisia 1 Libye 1
Cote d’Ivoire 1 Equatorial Guinea 1
Madagascar 1 Guinea Bissau 2
Rwanda 1 Liberia 2
Algeria 2 Nigeria 3
Congo – RDC 2 Ethiopia 3
Mali 2 Ouganda 4
Guinea Conakry 2 Soudan 5
SUB-TOTAL 1 13
Congo 3
Tchad 3
Burundi 4
Central Africa 4
Niger 4
Mauritania 4
Burkina Faso 5
Comores 5
SUB-TOTAL 2 32
TOTAL (1 + 2) 45 TOTAL 22

As these numbers demonstrate, France is quite desperate but active to keep a strong hold on his colonies what ever the cost, no matter what.

In March 2008, former French President Jacques Chirac said:

“Without Africa, France will slide down into the rank of a third [world] power”

Chirac’s predecessor François Mitterand already prophesied in 1957 that:

 “Without Africa, France will have no history in the 21st century”

At this very moment I’m writing this article, 14 african countries are obliged by France, trough a colonial pact, to put 85% of their foreign reserve into France central bank under French minister of Finance control. Until now, 2014, Togo and about 13 other african countries still have to pay colonial debt to France. African leaders who refuse are killed or victim of coup. Those who obey are supported and rewarded by France with lavish lifestyle while their people endure extreme poverty, and desperation.

It’s such an evil system even denounced by the European Union, but France is not ready to move from that colonial system which puts about 500 billions dollars from Africa to its treasury year in year out.

We often accuse African leaders of corruption and serving western nations interests instead, but there is a clear explanation for that behavior. They behave so because they are afraid the be killed or victim of a coup. They want a powerful nation to back them in case of aggression or trouble. But, contrary to a friendly nation protection, the western protection is often offered in exchange of these leaders renouncing to serve their own people or nations’ interests.

African leaders would work in the interest of their people if they were not constantly stalked and bullied by colonial countries.

In 1958, scared about the consequence of choosing independence from France, Leopold Sédar Senghor declared: “The choice of the Senegalese people is independence; they want it to take place only in friendship with France, not in dispute.”

From then on France accepted only an “independence on paper” for his colonies, but signed binding “Cooperation Accords”, detailing the nature of their relations with France, in particular ties to France colonial currency (the Franc), France educational system, military and commercial preferences.

Below are the 11 main components of the Colonisation continuation pact since 1950s:

 

#1.  Colonial Debt for the benefits of France colonization

The newly “independent” countries  should pay for the infrastructure built by France in the country during colonization.

I still have to find out the complete details about the amounts, the evaluation of the colonial benefits and the terms of payment imposed on the african countries, but we are working on that (help us with info).

 

#2. Automatic confiscation of national reserves

The African countries should deposit their national monetary reserves into France Central bank.

France has been holding the national reserves of fourteen african countries since 1961: Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Togo, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo-Brazzaville, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon.

“The monetary policy governing such a diverse aggregation of countries is uncomplicated because it is, in fact, operated by the French Treasury, without reference to the central fiscal authorities of any of the WAEMU or the CEMAC. Under the terms of the agreement which set up these banks and the CFA the Central Bank of each African country is obliged to keep at least 65% of its foreign exchange reserves in an “operations account” held at the French Treasury, as well as another 20% to cover financial liabilities.

The CFA central banks also impose a cap on credit extended to each member country equivalent to 20% of that country’s public revenue in the preceding year. Even though the BEAC and the BCEAO have an overdraft facility with the French Treasury, the drawdowns on those overdraft facilities are subject to the consent of the French Treasury. The final say is that of the French Treasury which has invested the foreign reserves of the African countries in its own name on the Paris Bourse.

In short, more than 80% of the foreign reserves of these African countries are deposited in the “operations accounts” controlled by the French Treasury. The two CFA banks are African in name, but have no monetary policies of their own. The countries themselves do not know, nor are they told, how much of the pool of foreign reserves held by the French Treasury belongs to them as a group or individually.

The earnings of the investment of these funds in the French Treasury pool are supposed to be added to the pool but no accounting is given to either the banks or the countries of the details of any such changes. The limited group of high officials in the French Treasury who have knowledge of the amounts in the “operations accounts”, where these funds are invested; whether there is a profit on these investments; are prohibited from disclosing any of this information to the CFA banks or the central banks of the African states .” Wrote Dr. Gary K. Busch

It’s now estimated that France is holding close to 500 billions African countries money in its treasury, and would do anything to fight anyone who want to shed a light on this dark side of the old empire.

The African countries don’t have access to that money.

France allows them to access only 15% of the money in any given year. If they need more than that, they have to borrow the extra money from their own 65% from the French Treasury at commercial rates.

To make things more tragic, France impose a cap on the amount of money the countries could borrow from the reserve. The cap is fixed at 20% of their public revenue in the preceding year. If the countries need to borrow more than 20% of their own money, France has a veto.

Former French President Jacques Chirac recently spoke about the African nations money in France banks. Here is a video of  him speaking about the french exploitation scheme. He is speaking in French, but here is a short excerpt transcript: “We have to be honest, and acknowledge that a big part of the money in our banks come precisely from the exploitation of the African continent.”

#3.  Right of first refusal on any raw or natural resource discovered in the country

France has the first right to buy any natural resources found in the land of its ex-colonies. It’s only after France would say, “I’m not interested”, that the African countries are allowed to seek other partners.

 

#4. Priority to French interests and companies in public procurement and public biding

In the award of government contracts, French companies must be considered first, and only after that these countries  could look elsewhere. It doesn’t matter if the african countries can obtain better value for money elsewhere.

As consequence, in many of the french ex-colonies, all the majors economical assets of the countries are in the hand of french expatriates. In Côte d’Ivoire, for example, french companies own and control all the major utilities – water, electricity, telephone, transport, ports and major banks. The same in commerce, construction, and agriculture.

In the end, as I’ve written in a previous article, Africans now Live On A Continent Owned by Europeans!

 

#5. Exclusive right to supply military equipment and Train the country military officers

Through a sophisticated scheme of scholarships, grants, and “Defense Agreements” attached to the Colonial Pact, the africans should send their senior military officers for training in France or French ran-training facilities.

The situation on the continent now is that France has trained hundreds, even thousands of traitors and nourish them. They are dormant when they are not needed, and activated when needed for a coup or any other purpose!

 

#6. Right for France to pre-deploy troops and  intervene military in the country to defend its interests

Under something called “Defence Agreements” attached to the Colonial Pact, France had the legal right to intervene militarily in the African countries, and also to station troops permanently in bases and military facilities in those
countries, run entirely by the French.

French military bases in Africa

French-military-bases-in-africa

When President Laurent Gbagbo of Côte d’Ivoire tried to end the French exploitation of the country, France organized a coup. During the long process to oust Gbagbo, France tanks, helicopter gunships and Special Forces intervened directly in the conflit, fired on civilians and killed many.

To add insult to injury, France estimated that the French business community had lost several millions of dollars when in the rush to leave Abidjan in 2006 the French Army massacred 65 unarmed civilians and wounded 1,200 others.

After France succeeded the coup, and transferred power to Alassane Outtara, France requested Ouattara government to pay compensation to French business community for the losses during the civil war.

Indeed the Ouattara government paid them twice what they said they had lost in leaving.

 

#7. Obligation to make French the official language of the country and the language for education

Oui, Monsieur. Vous devez parlez français, la langue de Molière!

A French language and culture dissemination organization has been created called “Francophonie” with several satellites and affiliates organizations supervised by the French Minister of Foreign Affairs.

As demonstrated in this article, if French is the only language you speak, you’d have access to less than 4% of humanity knowledge and ideas. That’s very limiting.

 

#8. Obligation to use France colonial money FCFA

That’s the real milk cow for France, but it’s such an evil system even denounced by the European Union, but France is not ready to move from that colonial system which puts about 500 billions dollars from Africa to its treasury.

During the introduction of Euro currency in Europe, other european countries discovered the french exploitation  scheme. Many, specially the nordic countries, were appalled and suggested France get rid of the system, but unsuccessfully.

 

#9.  Obligation to send France annual balance and reserve report.

Without the report, no money.

Anyway the secretary of the Central banks of the ex-colonies, and the secretary of the bi-annual meeting of the Ministers of Finance of the ex-colonies is carried out by France Central bank / Treasury.

 

#10. Renonciation to enter into military alliance with any other country unless authorized by France

African countries in general are the ones with will less regional military alliances. Most of the countries have only military alliances with their ex-colonisers! (funny, but you can’t do better!).

In the case France ex-colonies, France forbid them to seek other military alliance except the one it offered them.

 

#11. Obligation to ally with France in situation of war or global crisis

Over one million africans soldiers fought for the defeat of nazism and fascism during the second world war.

Their contribution is often ignored or minimized, but when you think that it took only 6 weeks for Germany to defeat France in 1940, France knows that Africans could be useful for fighting for la “Grandeur de la France” in the future.

There is something almost psychopathic in the relation of France with Africa.

First,  France is severely addicted to looting and exploitation of Africa  since the time of slavery. Then there is this complete lack of creativity and imagination of french elite to think beyond the past and tradition.

Finally, France has 2 institutions which are completely frozen into the past, inhabited by paranoid and psychopath “haut fonctionnaires” who spread fear of apocalypse if France would change, and whose ideological reference still comes from the 19th century romanticism: they are the Minister of Finance and Budget of France and the Minister of Foreign affairs of France.

These 2 institutions are not only a threat to Africa, but to the French themselves.

6. British

Biggest slave ports of the Americas

The slave trade was the largest forced movement of people in history. There are over 200 million people of African descent in the Americas

Where the slaves were transported from

Luanda, Angola

Luanda-SMiguelFort2

Badagry, Nigeria

IMG_8741

Ouidah, Benin

Ouidah_Porte_du_Non_retour.jpg (1280×960)

Elmina, Ghana

elmina_castle1

Goree Island, Senegal

Portal_of_sorrow-senegal-01

Ethnic groups that were taken

  1. Hausa Fulani  60

Yoruba  40-50 million

Igbo  40

Image result for igbo clothing

 

 

Akan  20 Million

9. Mande people 13 million

 

 

From these Ports of Entry Africans received a new identity in instead of Nigerian, Angolan, Ghanaian, Beninese, Senegalese they would become Black Americans 1526, Black Brazilians, AfroColombian 1513, Haitian, Dominican 1502, Afro Cuban 1513, Jamaican 1518, Puerto Rican, Panamanian, etc.

 

Slave ports

1. Charleston, South Carolina

186,000 slaves

Old-Slave-Mart-Museum-Charleston

2. Baltimore. Maryland

45d5531e-bddb-4afd-92d8-eaaaa99d93a9_d

3. Savannah, Georgia

1e-002-ss-10-kdegra_sm

4. New Orleans, Louisiana

NewOrleansPanoramic

Black Americans

Slave ports of Cuba

Havana

El_Morro

Matanzas

 

 

AfroCubans

santeria-havana

Slave port of Hispanolia

Santo Domingo

ss7730395_7730395_8771219

Afro-Dominicans

Haiti

Cap Haitian

Fort Picolet

500,000 slaves

Haitian

Slave port of Puerto Rico

San Juan

el_morro_fortress_old_san_juan

Puerto Ricans

Slave port of Jamaica

 

Port Royal

900,000 slaves

516276080_ca754a0fe4_z

 

Slave ports of Colombia

Cartegena was largest slave port in Spanish speaking America

colombia-port

Afro-Colombian

Slave ports of Brazil

1. Rio de Janeiro

2 million slaves arrived – Rio de Janeiro was the largest slave port in the history of the World

sub-jp-brazil-master675

2. Salvador

1.5 million

Governador Jaques Wagner assina ordem de serviço para ampliação do sistema de esgotamento sanitário e de autorização para implantação de sistema simplificado de abastecimento de água, lançamento da licitação de outras obras de saneamento na zona rural de Barreiras. Na foto: Foto Manu Dias/AGECOM
Governador Jaques Wagner assina ordem de serviço para ampliação do sistema de esgotamento sanitário e de autorização para implantação de sistema simplificado de abastecimento de água, lançamento da licitação de outras obras de saneamento na zona rural de Barreiras.
Na foto:
Foto Manu Dias/AGECOM

 

Afro Brazillian

 

Who was responsible

(1502–1867)  348

Portuguese  Colonies 39%

British    28%

Spanish   18%

French 14%

Dutch 2%

Sadly there no events to seriously commemorate these events

Leaving Africa- Self Afrophobia in Black Majority Societies

 

Self Afrophobia in Black Majority Societies

Dominican Republic

The Discrimination Republic

“Looks like Heaven feels like Hell”

images

 

The Island of Hispanolia is one of the most strangest and weirdest places, with the most craziest and fascinating history you will ever see.

The Island of Hate

The independent Hispanic website Voxxi News reports that Haitian and Dominican relations are currently the worst they have been in 75 years.

Facts about about Hispanolia

  • It was the first place settled by Europeans in the New World
  • The Island was originally originally inhabited by Taino Native Americans who were brutally decimated and killed off.
  • It’s name means the Spanish Island, but in reality it should be called the African Island. At 20 million people and 10 million divided for each country, these two countries are the largest Black Majority countries in the New World or the Americas. 85-90% is of African descent
  • This was the place where idea of enslaving Blacks/Africans and sending them to Americas came about. Santo Domingo was the first slave port. The Spanish priest Las Casa was behind this idea.

  • It became the richest colony in the world due to the sugarcane production
  • The slaves in Haiti were the worst treated slaves. Which resulted in them revolting and successfully establishing the the Worlds first country ran by ex slaves, and the second independent country in the Americas.

 

The Haitian occupation, what was it all about.

  • The misconception that Haiti invaded the Dominican Republic distorts events that took place on the island between 1795 and 1844. Shortly after the start of the Haitian Revolution in 1791, Spain ceded its part of the island to France in the 1795 Treaty of Basel. This resulted in the entire island becoming one single French colony.  It is that colony that became an independent state in January 1804. All Haitian Constitutions published since independence through 1867 have referred to the entire island as the nation of Haiti because it was the entire island that won its independence from France. This is stated in Article 1 of the Constitution of 1805 where the country of Haiti is defined as the island of Haiti. To say that Haiti invaded its eastern part is like saying that Haiti invaded itself.Boyer never colonized nor conquered nor invaded the eastern side of the island because that portion of the island was already a part of Haiti. Revisionist historians constantly accuse Boyer of having invaded the eastern part of the island which supposedly belonged to Spain. If this were true, it would have been tantamount to Boyer declaring war on Spain.  What sense would it have made for Boyer to fear war and buy peace with France while declaring war against Spain? The truth of the matter is that Haiti never attacked any Spanish owned territory.        Boyer’s government became unpopular when it levied taxes on the island’s population to pay France, but it took a natural disaster to topple his government.  In 1842, while the country was still under an American embargo, a powerful earthquake struck Haiti and crippled Boyer’s administration. The disarray empowered rebel groups throughout the island.  An opposition group sprung in the south while in the east, a separatist movement led by Juan Pablo Duarte gained momentum and eventually led to the eastern side of the island declaring its independence in February 1844.President Tyler of the United States responded by saying that the United States, France, and Spain must quickly recognize this new nation in order to limit the influence of Black people in the Caribbean. The United States quickly recognized Dominican independence but waited 20 years later to recognize that of Haiti. With the eastern separatists backed by world super-powers, Haiti could no longer maintain the integrity of the island as one nation despite several subsequent efforts to reunify the island.Even years after the eastern side became the Dominican Republic, there was no defined border between the two countries. It was not until 1929, under US occupation that the border was created.  The US occupation force was selected from the US south. The argument was that southern whites knew best how to control Negros. The border was drawn in a way that favored the lighter skinned Dominicans.  Haiti was forced to overlook the 1795 Treaty of Basel that gave the entire island to France and return instead to the earlier 1697 Treaty of Ryswick which gave 2/3 of the island to Spain and 1/3 to France. That treaty predated and ignored the outcome of the Haitian Revolution.The history of how the island went from being one country to being two independent nations is reflected in Haiti’s Constitutions. Toussaint’s 1801 Constitution defined the entire island as one colony. From 1805 to 1849, all Haitian Constitutions refer to the country as the island of Haiti. Between 1867 and 1957, all Haitian Constitutions avoided the term island so as not to seem threatening to their new neighbor and refer to the country as the territory of Haiti without defining its boundaries.  The first Constitution that acknowledges the existence of two countries on the island is the Constitution of 1987 which states that the country is bordered to the east by the Dominican Republic.The Dominican Republic is a country that sprung from Haiti. Today, Haitians and Dominicans who can trace their family’s history to the earliest days of the Dominican Republic will find that they have much in common. Indeed, the very founders of the Dominican Republic, among them, Duarte and Santana, were once Haitian citizens.

 

What did Haiti do that the Dominicans were angry during the 22 year occupation

-Sacked cities

-Took land from white landowners

 

  • However, the real resentment was that they were Black ex slaves bossing around their former master.
  • Haiti was doing well until France demanded they pay $21 billion dollars
  • At the time Haiti had been more economically and militarily powerful and had a population 8 to 10 times larger than the former Spanish colony, having been the richest colony in the western hemisphere before the Haitian Revolution. Dominican military officers agreed to merge the newly independent nation with Haiti, as they sought for political stability under the Haitian president Jean-Pierre Boyer, and were attracted to Haiti’s perceived wealth and power at the time. The Dominican Republic had no military force. Haiti, on the other hand, had formidable armed forces, both in skill and sheer size (for such a small land), that had been hardened for nearly 10 years of repelling French soldiers, local colonialists and military insurgents (lesser armed factions).
  • The Dominican Republic is one of the Few countries in the America’s that received its independence from a Non European country. Slavery was never big in the Dominican Republic.
  • The ethnic composition of the Dominican population is 73% Mixed, 16% white and 11% black. The reason why there is so many mixed race people is that slavery was not a big industry there so people relatively got along and intermixed at high rates, and the ones that did own slaves there were notorious for raping their slaves or having Black concubines. There is a recorded incident of a White Spaniard slave owner having over 90 Black concubines and 200 children from them. Slaves were only 10% of the population.
  • During colonial times Most whites in the DR were poor. Most whites in Haiti were rich.
  • The ethnic composition of Haiti is estimated to be 95% black, 5% white and mixed
  • The Dominican Republic has historically been more Whiter, but now that has declined, due to safety concerns
    1790 (Haitian revolt White population was 32% [2])  (48.5%)[3]
    1920:(American occupation White population was 24.9%)[4]
    1960: (End of Trujillo Era 16.1%)[5]
    2006 survey: (13.6%)
  • The Economy is mostly controlled By Whites. Since independence, most of the Dominican Republics Presidents have been White.
  • The Black people in The Dominican Republic are brainwashed not to only to not see themselves as Black, but to deny they have any Black blood at all. This started by Trujillo and continued on by Balaguer in order to kill any spirit of unity the Black people who make up 85-90% of the population would have there. The Dominican Republic is probably the most racist antiBlack Nation in the Western Hemisphere. http://www.americasquarterly.org/content/my-struggles-black-american-dominican-republic.  http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/03/05/dominican-republic-kkk_n_4904849.html
  • Afro-Dominicans (who make make up 90% of the population) have traditionally failed to flaunt their blackness as a collective
    banner to advance economic, cultural, or political causes. Dominicans have, for the most part, denied their blackness. Faced with the population’s tolerance of official claims asserting the moral and intellectual superiority of Caucasians by white supremacist ideologues, analysts of racial identity in Dominican society have often imputed to Dominicans heavy doses of “backwardness,” “ignorance,” 
    or “confusion” regarding their race and ethnicity. 
  • Dominicans Afro Descendants are very self hating. Nappy Hair is not just referred to as Nappy. It’s referred to as bad hair.

Do they look Indian?

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  • 90% of the economy is controlled by 25 White families. On average, only 45 cents of every dollar a tourist spends in a developing country remains in the local economy. Spanish hoteliers own many of the most popular Dominican chains. Still, about one of three Dominicans lives in poverty, according to World Bank statistics. The electricity cuts out daily and the country spends less of its gross domestic product on education than nearly any other Latin American country. Catholic Youth Ministry coordinator Luis Rosario said the country has more brothels than schools.
  • In the Dominican Republic it is pretty common for parents to ask, or more like order, their children to drop out of school and start working. n the DR, you’ll see kids repeating the same grade 2-3 times and by the time they’re 12-13 they’re still in fourth grade. The government knows this but there’s not only a shortage of teachers, as there are in many other countries, but there aren’t enough school buildings to teach students, and lets not talk about the very low standards students have to meet and the really poor training.
  • Moreover, the World Bank report points out that Dominican society suffers from much inequality, particularly in urban areas. The report paints a picture of a country in which the poor remain poor, trapped in their situation with little chance of escaping. Dominican society is highly unequal even in the context of the Latin American region, well-known for its gaping divisions; whilst over the decade an average of 41% of the overall population in Latin America and the Caribbean moved up to a higher income group, this figure was a mere 2% in the Dominican Republic.
  • The U.N. agency says half of Dominicans younger than 18 live in poverty, struggling to get enough food, access to safe drinking water and adequate housing. Only 30 percent of kids finish primary school and that only 18 percent finish secondary school on time. Those schools are in poor shape: Nearly half have no drinking water and nearly 60 percent have no toilets
  • Most of the Dominican media is White, and many upscale night clubs discriminate against anyone with African blood. http://nypost.com/2007/08/08/the-drs-dark-secret/.
  • The chose to say they are Native American or Indian because Africans were just slaves. And the Indians resisted the Spanish, even though it was the Black Africans on that island who fought of the French, Spanish, and British and liberated that island, not the Indians.

Dominican Republic wasn’t always self hating. Americans commenting on racial matters in the Dominican Republic at the time. One is the sense that “no austere  prejudice against color prevails” in the country, as one author put it, or, in the words of another, that “distinction of color, in social life, is entirely unknown” (Santo Domingo, 1863: 10; Keim, 1870: 168).

Dominican “Hitler” Rafael Trujillo

PlátanoCurtain,” also crippled theDominican Republic socially. It created an absolute seclusion from the rest of the world. It was impossible to leave the countrywithout state permission. Trujillo had a way of debilitating any sense ofresistance. People were scared to cross him. If it was not the paranoia that he was alwayswatching that was stopping you, it was the fear of the inevitable fukú that would curseyou and your family for generations to come. By instilling fear in the Dominicans, he wasable to get what he wanted. He “killed whomever he wanted to kill, sons, brothers,fathers, mothers, took women away from their husbands on their weddings nights andthen brag publicly about the ‘great honeymoon’ he’d had the nightbefore.” He wasruthless. He didn’t care who he was hurting; he had supreme control.

“The face of evil” Joaqin Balaguer”

While the majority of Dominicans are of African descent, Balaguer argued that after the decimation of the island’s indigenous population the Dominican Republic was repopulated by white Spaniards. According to him, African characteristics in the Dominican population were a result of Haitian infiltration of the Dominican Republic. Because of his fear of racial “contamination”, Balaguer became increasingly concerned about Dominicans born to Haitian parents. In the 1970s he commissioned several investigations into the issue, and numerous government  officials informed him that the government could not deport Dominican-Haitians, because, having been born in the Dominican Republic, they were constitutionally Dominican citizens. However, born on plantations far away from medical care, many never received official birth certificates.

 

“La Isla Al Reves”

The Dominican Version of Mein Kampf”

 

  • Most Dominicans will assure you that Haitians worship devils, and that they practice cannibalism.All will remark on their unperfumed body odor. The more refined Dominicans will express their pity for Haitians and say, alas, it is a shame they can not effectively govern themselves.The American and British expatriates I speak to tell me the same thing about Dominicans, who are largely African themselves.

domincan-republic-anti-haiti

  • How Racist Whites feel about Dominicans

“They are pretty trashy and will swear on their afros that they are not black, which is just sad.

“The Dominicans are descended from slaves. I’m not aware of anything they have to offer save for steroid using baseball players who beat their wives. I wouldn’t let one in my house”

“The paramount realization we all must come to regarding Dominicans and other Latin American breeds is that they characteristically behave in the same revolting way and yet under the pretense of having a class-ladder, as though one hispanic is superior to another hailing from a different Latin American country. Dominicans are simply negroes who speak spanish, which, as I’ve observed makes them that much more flagrant and enigmatic than the typical american negro. They can’t seem to decide which element of their descent is dominant, however, most seem more heavily influenced by African characteristics. One example is in their musical tastes, which revolve around the ideologically bankrupt “hip-hop culture”. They’re not to be trusted and with the influx of Dominican people, they equally pose a threat to the well-being of the future of decent white people in the U.S. We should not view them as any different, greater or less than the common negro.”

“I don’t consider drug dealers to be hard working, but to each their own.”

“Dominicans are nothing more than African savages with a spic’s attitude.”

Dominicans in Spain

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70% of the more than 100,000 Dominicans that live in Spain are unemployed. the majority of the Dominicans in Spain work in the construction sector, or as maids.

  • Haitians are the cheapest labor force in the Americas, and one of the cheapest in the World. Many Haitians come to or trafficked to sugar plantations called Bateyes, where they make about $300 a year. The Dominican Republic is the largest exporter of sugar to the United States. There is a special agreement where the United States pays double the price for its Dominican sugar (Which the United States should boycott due to its treatment of Haitians).  The Sugar Industry (100% Haitian), Hotel industry (50% Haitian) Banana Industry (40% Haitian), Construction Industry (85% Haitian) is dependent on cheap Haitian migrant labor.
  • 30,000 Haitians were killed by Dominicans in 1937 in 5 days. There is no memorial for the murder.In 2007, the Catholic Church requested a national apology from the Dominican Republic to Haiti. Cardinal Nicolas de Jesus Lopez Rodriguez, archbishop of Santo Domingo, refused to comply because he said the Haitian massacre occurred 70 years ago, and Trujillo was killed in 1961. Rodriguez said: “In this case it’s Trujillo who should be asked to render account, who was the criminal. It doesn’t seem to me that the Dominican people have any guilt in that, honestly. Meanwhile Many Dominicans fault Haitians for the Haitian occupation of the 1800’s.
  • Haitians get treated bad in Dominican society, from being called names in the street, to violence, one Haitian in Santo Domingo was beheaded in broad daylight amongst a cheering crowd.
  • Dominicans make about $6,000 a year and unemployment is 15%, Haitians make $800 a year and unemployment is 40-70%
  • The Dominican Republic is not perfect either, many tourists get robbed or killed in the DR, drug trafficking is a problem, prostitution is rampant, so is corruption, and power outages, Dominican Republic is the world’s sixth worse country in energy distribution and power lines losses, according to the World Bank study on World Development Indicators 2014, which evaluated 223 high, low and middle income countries, and AIDs is at 1%
  • Dominican Republic put in a new birthright law, that is designed to strip all Dominican born Haitians born in the country after 1929 of citizenship, this is different than fighting against illegal immigration. (http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/world/2015/07/30/dominican-republic-tourists-haiti-citizenship-immigration-boycott/30384635/  One could understand if the new birthright would be meant for Foreigners born after 2013 or 2015. But to push it to 1929 is very harsh.
  • Many Haitian Dominicans are trying to file for citizenship, but immigration officers have been threatened by Dominicans who don’t want them in their country. Also Haitians in the Dominican Republic don’t need their passport or visa on them, but they also need their birth certificate on them. Many Haitians still get deported even when they have all their proper papers.
  • Many Haitians have been victims of violence  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oGgGmjNJ-IE

 

Positive Note the Dominican Republic was the first to help Haiti in earthquake (This was mainly because they didn’t want a mass influx of Haitians coming into the country) . Haitians pay the same as Dominicans to go to University. Trujillo’s  attempt to carry out mass deportations prior to the massacre failed because local communities opposed the illegal targeting of Haitian immigrants. Indeed, Haitians and Dominicans lived together all over the country, and were often openly hostile to attempts by the central government to intervene in their lives. Both countries had limited paved roads and communication infrastructure, and Haitian and Dominican peasants had more in common with each other than with a distant elite. Far from an expression of popular anti-Haitian sentiment, the Trujillo orchestrated massacre was an attempt to breakdown the long-standing connections between Haitians and Dominicans that limited his power over the country.

Famous Dark Skinned Black Dominicans outside of Sports and Music

Jose Francisco Pena Gomez – Former Presidential Canditate who almost Became President of the Dominican Republic.  A three-time candidate for president of the Dominican Republic and former Mayor of Santo Domingo. He is considered as one of the most prominent Dominican political figures of the 20th century. Santo Domingo’s airport is named after him.

(Note: The Dominican Republic has already had dark skinned presidents like Ulises Heureaux, and Gregorio Luperon)

Johnny Ventura, former Mayor of Santo Domingo

Yaritza Reyes

Miss Dominican Republic 2013. Representer of Dominican Republic for Miss World Competition

Yaritza Reyes

Dominican Republic is modernizing. It is the fastest growing economy in Latin America. But has a 40% poverty rate

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Where as Haiti is destitute and poor

What should be done

  • Black needs to be added as a category on the Census
  • Dominicans need to learn more about Africa and their African history and contributions

  • Dominican society needs more representative media
  • They also need to need to get rid of the racist psychos hatemongers, and irrational people in the media.
  • Haitians in Bateyes need to be treated better with better facilities
  • End US military assistance to Haiti http://www.antillean.org/why-i-want-to-end-us-military-aid-to-the-dominican-republic-319/
  • Dominicans need to change that law citizenship law and push the date to 2015
  • Haiti needs to develop but what is going to happen to the sugarcane, banana, and construction  industry if Haitians leave those industries, that issue needs to develop.

South Africa

Self Afrophobia

Xenophobia An unreasonable fear or hatred offoreigners or strangers or of that which isforeign or strange. Afrophobia Fearhate, or dislike of Black Africans and Black African descendant. Many people are debating whether to call the events of what is happening xenophobia or Afrophobia . However I decide to call it Afroxenophobia because it is both. It would not make sense to call it xenophobia because they are simply not attacking all foreigners, and it would not make sense to call it simply Afrophobia due to the fact they are themselves African.So it would make more sense to call it Afroxenophobia which is hatred or dislike of African foreigners. It is sad to note that the country with the highest dislike for African foreigners is in Black Africa itself. The violent incidences of Afroxenophobia far precedes anything that is happening in Russia, The Middle East, Israel,India, China, or elsewhere Here is why Afroxenophobia in South Africa is so stupid

1. They helped you during apartheid. The United States Uk France Switzerland did not initially go against apartheid In fact they labelled Mandela as a terrorist. It was other African countries that supported your leaders in exile and gave them money and support. Nigeria alone spent 61 billion dollars to fight apartheid.In Nigeria civil servants had to voluntarily donate 25% of their salaries to SA Relief Fund for

2. They are helping your economy. 50 percent of all employees in these African owned businesses are local South Africans.

3. Why cant you fight against the small minority who own 70 percent of the land

4. Digging a hole for yourself by cutting yourself from Africa and will result in less support in the future

5. Outside of Africa you are just seen as African and subject to racism as any other Africans

6. Immigrants make up only 10 percent nothing alarming

7. A place for wealthy African elites to travel. The tourism industry is going to be badly hit.

8. Would anyone hire violent hateful murderers

What others Africans can learn from this

1. People will pick on the weak regardless of what color they are whether in Greece India or South Africa. There is a reason that they are not attacking Whites regardless of nationality. Because Whites are strong and Africans are weak people. It is important as Africans to train ourselves to be strong minded and strong willed otherwise we will continue to be the objects of peoples misdirected anger 2. Hire more locals if they dont turn out to be good employees fire them until you find one who is. So called civil South Africans 1. It is not enough to simply say we are all not like that. 2. Attacking or blaming other Africans is not going to solve your problems. SA is a land of hate and the most unequal society in the world 1. Whites vs Blacks 2. Afrikaaners vs British 3. Zulus vs different tribes 4. Whites vs Nonwhites 5. Indians vs Blacks 6.Coloureds vs Blacks 7. South Africans vs foreigners What other African countries must do 1. Boycott all South African businesses and companies So dont shop at shoprite picknpay or eat at Nandos. As punishment not only for the murderers looters and attackers but South African society for not successfully educating its people in regards to this matter. http://mobile.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/NewsArchive/artikel.php?ID=355005http://www.cknnigeria.com/2015/04/xenophobic-attacksnigerians-scchedule.html?m=1http://www.lusakatimes.com/2015/04/17/qfm-radio-station-stops-playing-south-african-music-in-response-to-xenophobia-attacks/ http://www.nyasatimes.com/2015/04/15/malawi-to-boycott-south-africa-goods-after-xenophobia-attacks/ http://allafrica.com/stories/201504150234.htmlhttp://m.news24.com/news24/SouthAfrica/News/South-Africans-chased-out-of-Mozambique-20150417 http://www.citypress.co.za/opinion/lessons-for-south-africa-how-zambia-prevented-xenophobia/ 2.Procecute Zwelithini for incitement to genocide or have him make an apology

3. An aggressive anti Afroxenophobia campaign

apartheidmuseum

1

Black America

Solidarity for Black Americans

Thursday, February 26th, 2015 at 5:52 pm.

Both of my Grand Fathers were in the US Air Force. One actually flew fighter planes in the second world war against the german army, the Luftwaffe. He was BLACK. In my family there are 6 doctors, one Graduate from M.I.T, and a surgeon to top it off. We are fiercely proud of our achievement.

I lived in an all-Black American upper middle class neighborhood where my neighbors and friends were of similar pedigree. My neighborhood buddies and I all played the same games and acted the same way it was an all American upbringing. UNTIL a new family moved across the street into the new house in our modern upper crust subdivision. They were different, they had the same skin color as us but there accent wasn’t familiar. They were from a place called “Uganda “, they wore colorful patterns and the parents were extremely hospitable to the neighborhood.

This is where the “Miseducation of Black Americans” occurred for me and many of our people.

My first visual reference to “ Uganda “ came by the way of a Black wrestler in the World Wide Wrestling Federation known as the WWF by the name of Kamala. He was 6 feet 8 inches tall and weighed well over 450 pounds. He wore face paint and made grunt noises like he was an animal from the jungle. Never mind that his name was James Harris and was from Mississippi and was a black man. That was my first introduction to Uganda through a Black wrestler who pretended to be a savage African who also made a mockery of Africans and Ugandans in particular.

After watching “Kamala “grunt and make guttural noises and speak in a click language. As a Black American child we quickly disassociated ourselves with anything African. We attributed anything wild and savage with Africa and Ugandans to our new neighbors who were the total opposite of Kamala. BUT as a child who doesn’t have the maturity to understand the differences we placed our ignorance above their humanity. Names like “African Booty Scratcher”, “Dirty African”, “Child Soldier” and “Swamp Runner” were used to demean them.

My friends and I were the worst ambassadors to help bridge the gap between Black Americans and Africans in the diaspora. Even we (Black Americans) had to deal with the hostility directed at us through the majority white schools that we attended where we were made to feel inadequate and different. The negative energy we received from the teachers, the administrators and the principals manifested in our own self-hatred of being who we were, “Black Americans”. This type of negative energy drives some Black Americans to deny their very roots. “Why would I want to be Black? Everyone hates us”.

That type of thinking drove my friends and me to make fun of our African brothers and sisters in our neighborhood which caused many fist fights and causing our families to disassociate with each other. As we grew up we attended the same high schools where other Black Americans made fun of their clothing choices.

To my African brothers let me explain this, we (Black Americans) sometimes have a warped sense of thinking. We think if you’d wear expensive shoes like “Air Jordan’s” or purchase designer clothing like “POLO” that then we’d be accepted, and it would protect us from ridicule. We were made to feel intellectually inferior in school so the only avenue for feeling better about ourselves were clothing.

As we made our way through high school I watched them (Ugandans) achieve academic brilliance while everyone else continued to dress well. Their clothing choices were not the best quality but their academic achievements soared, they were proud of it despite their cousins (Black Americans) making fun of them. It became a grudgingly respect in our neighborhood between their families and the Black Americans. I don’t know what happened to my Ugandan neighbors, I wish they could know me now as an adult because I am conscious about my roots.

Sadly many Black Americans and Africans can never get over this dispute between distant cousins. A lot harbor these feelings into adulthood. Fortunately my thinking of my African roots became more profound when my mother uncovered my family history. She mapped the first person in our family to wash ashore to America in the early 1800’s. That was where my Ancestral history stopped, we didn’t know his African name but he was a male at the age of 28. That was my confirmation, it showed me that over 200 years ago someone from a West African tribe was my forefather. At that point the images of Africa as a desolate, starving, war mongering and inhabitable place ceased to exist. I wanted to know more about what my family lost and how it can be regained. Luckily we took a DNA test and found out that my family is “Nigerian “. It may be just on a piece of paper but my life has a point of origin.

I really wish I could apologize for my ignorant statements towards my neighbors and other Africans I offended. Refusing to acknowledge your Blackness or African roots is a way of self-hatred that many Black Americans unknowingly participate in.

My friends who were with me as we said horrible things to our Ugandan brothers and sisters acknowledged their stupidity. When you don’t know your history or your family, ignorance is your best ally. I can now claim that I am no longer ignorant, my cloak has been lifted. I was a son of slaves who built America, I am a Black American, an African and now I am Nigerian and I will never be embarrassed to admit it. I just wish I could find my ex neighbor to apologize.

Kamala
Ethiopia

Roel van der Veen, for Addis Standard
Development in the non-Western world
In the 1870s Japanese public intellectual Yukichi Fukuzawa shocked his audience by stating that he thought Japan should leave poor Asia and join the modern world. Japan in those days was going through a phase of rapid change, which would eventually lead to Japan becoming a modern nation and the leading nation in Asia. Yukichi Fukuzawa, who founded a university and Japan’s first daily newspaper, travelled extensively in America and Europe, and his books about the development of the West became bestsellers in Japan. The provocative, brave ideas of Yukichi Fukuzawa angered many Japanese, but more important, inspired millions of his countrymen to support Japan’s modernization effort, thereby improving people’s lives. How does this story of 150 years ago in a very different part in the world, connect to Ethiopia and Africa?
Over the last decade, several African countries have made impressive progress in growing their economies and to some extent, reducing the poverty of their populations. Ethiopia has been one of them. Economic growth has in some years reached ten percent, and poverty has been reduced from about 70 percent of the population at the beginning of the 1980s to about 35 percent now, all in the context of a rapidly growing population. After centuries of limited wealth for only a small elite amidst mass poverty, should this improvement come as a surprise? Not really. I’ll explain.

For years scholars and politicians have thought that poor countries could not become richer because the rich countries kept them down. However, the rise of the poor countries in Asia over the last half a century, has falsified this theory. Many Asian countries have reached high or middle-income status, thereby joining, each in their own way, the modern world. How was this possible? Why did countries in Asia become substantially richer, whereas countries in Africa did not?
The Tracking Development research project
Dutch development co-operation sponsored a big international research project called ‘Tracking Development’, involving several African and Asian scholars to find out what governments in Asia had done to make their countries richer, and why governments in Africa had not done the same thing. In the project countries in South East Asia were compared with countries in Sub Saharan Africa, countries that were similar in many aspects, but differed in one crucial aspect: the Asian country became substantially richer, whereas the African county did not. Take the Indonesia – Nigeria comparison. Both countries are very big (by far the biggest in their regions), have a colonial past (with subsequent new state structures), have large natural resources (especially oil), are very corrupt, have very poor governance, have a large Islamic population, ethnic diversity, strong and politically active military, et cetera. But Indonesia became richer, whereas Nigeria did not. Why?

After several years of hard work and many lively discussions, the project came up with answers, some of them quite surprising (also to me, I must admit). The main thesis of the project, well explained by the project’s main researcher prof. David Henley from Leiden University (in his book Asia – Africa development divergence, Zed Books, London, 2015), is that countries will have their economic take-offs when three policy results have been achieved simultaneously. First, a government should provide macro-economic stability (so no high inflation, a balanced budget and the real value of the currency).Second, it should provide economic freedom for its farmers and small entrepreneurs (to sell their products at a market to whomever they like). And finally, and this was the big surprise to me, they should spend massively, and be pro-poor, in agriculture, to vitalize the economy of the countryside (for better seeds, training for farmers, fertilizer, small roads to connect to markets et cetera). More home grown food will feed the nation better, will save money (because no food has to be imported, it might at some stage even be exported), it will raise the incomes in the countryside, lower food prices in the cities (thereby making the population more competitive at the later stage of industrialization) and will set the stage for the first stage of industrialization, which almost always consist of food-processing. The main lesson is thus: agricultural development comes before industrialization.
So we know what South East Asian governments achieved, but how did they do it? How could they implement these policies with the poor and ineffective states of that time? In other words: what was the governance involved? David Henley gives straight answers to this important question by identifying three principles of the successful development strategies. It is amazing how much these principles differ from the principles of what we donors call ‘good governance’. First: outreach (or quantity, not quality). You have to reach the millions of poor people if you want to have an impact on poverty. Here we see the link with agriculture. The only way to really reduce poverty is to go were the poor masses live, which is in the countryside. Second: urgency (or priorities, not plans). Go for the few things that really need to be done, and use all capacity available to achieve it. Forget about the nice elaborated plans with their tens of objectives, drawn up by experts, because these objectives will never be achieved that way. And thirdly: expediency (or results, not rules). In a way it doesn’t matter how you do it (by breaking the rules or not), as long as you achieve the desired results.

But why did governments in South East Asia do this, and African governments not? In my personal view the answer lies in something quite simple: the number of people. At the time nations in South East Asia had their take-offs, the countryside was densely populated, mainly with poor peasants, who tended to go communist (it was the time of the Cold War). So it was really out of their own self-interest that governments decided to improve the lives of these poor people, so that they would become less angry towards the authorities. For the politicians it was purely done out of self-interest, it was the life insurance of the regime. In the same decades in Africa such forces did not exist, because the countryside was only sparsely populated. Politically speaking in Africa it would have been irrational to waste substantial money on the farmers. It made more sense to keep the jobless youth in the cities quiet by providing jobs in industry. This political rationality had the unfortunate, even tragic, consequence that no take-off followed, because (as we now know) starting with industrialization is starting at the wrong end.

Can Africa learn from the lessons of South East Asia? I don’t think there are blue prints of development. Even in South East Asia itself there are exceptions. Take Singapore, which does not even have a countryside. But the experience of that Asian region at least suggests which paths to development might be successful. And as David Henley always underlines: why not try? Because over the decades, with extremely fast population growth in Africa, the African countryside is beginning to look like the South East Asian countryside of fifty years ago. Political rationality is therefore changing in the right direction. Surely it is no co-incidence that countries with the most densely populated countryside, like Ethiopia and Rwanda, have the best developmental policies.

So does Ethiopia do the right things?
Looking at the statistics concerning growth and poverty reduction, the answer is simple: certainly, yes. The government was able to keep the macro-economic situation stable at sound levels and it has invested massively in the countryside. On economic freedom it could do better, but apparently this is not very harmful to the overall picture. Must we therefore applaud the Ethiopian government for its policy choices? Of course we must, but we need to be a bit nuanced here, because policy choices don’t fall from the sky just like that. There are good reasons why politicians make their choices – in a way they are forced to do so by the political forces working on them, although we like to think they have the freedom to make their choices.
Understanding the findings of the ‘Tracking Development’ project, we could more or less predict this would happen. The forces that are increasingly working on the Ethiopian government are the same forces that made the successful development policies of president Soeharto of Indonesia appear fifty years ago: a more densely populated countryside, with a majority of poor and potentially hostile peasants, who could make life very difficult for the government if their situation would not improve. So it is one of those rare occasions when the self-interest of the government (to politically survive) aligns with the self-interest of the majority of the people (to get a better life).This is the moment that policies can be implemented to start sustained development.

But right now we cannot say for sure if the take-off has already taken place. It might be, but it is simply too early to tell. There are always dangers that can still cause havoc to a promising start. To mention some for Ethiopia: the country is a haven of stability in a very unstable region, but this stability could easily be threatened by becoming involved in the violence from abroad or by unduly efforts to liberalize the Ethiopian state. Another risk is that the government, under pressure from all kinds of advisors and city-dwellers, will decide to try to industrialize, at the expense of agriculture. In Africa there is always this pressure, but it should be ignored as long as possible. To industrialize too early has the danger to ruin the current development project. The country should stay on the current development course for at least several more years.
This should not be too difficult. Africans have a tendency to blame the international environment for their hardships (often rightly so), but this does not hold for the future. In fact, the international environment is very promising for a country like Ethiopia. Especially for Ethiopia, I would say. Being stable in an unstable region, the country receives a lot of foreign aid to retain its stability. In return, it does not have to follow orders from anybody, because in nowadays multipolar world, it can choose its own partners – the West is no longer dominant. And with the growing world population, there will be a huge market for Ethiopian agricultural products in the years ahead. It looks all very favorable for sustained development in Ethiopia.

I always found the statement by Yukichi Fukuzawa, that Japan should leave poor Asia, intriguing. It signaled the birth of a new era not only for Japan, but in the end for all of Asia. Japan led the way, because after some time it was followed by its former colonies Taiwan and South Korea, which were then followed by Hong Kong and Singapore, et cetera. One after the other had its take-off, to fly following the ones in front. Observers recognized the pattern of flying geese in the air, in their peculiar v-formation, and called this pattern of development the flying geese model. So the thing is that as a country you can indeed leave a poor region, but that at some point your example will be followed by others, who will try to leave too. In the end, the whole region will have moved, from poverty to better lives.

Such a thing is about to happen for Africa as well. Ethiopia can leave Africa, but it will discover its example will be copied, and Africa will come after her, joining her as part of a materially richer world. So maybe we should speak of ‘leading’ instead of ‘leaving’. The difference is just one letter, and the difference in significance is indeed also very small. At the moment there are just a few candidates to become the first goose to lead the group, among them Rwanda (using a similar model as Ethiopia) and Ghana (using a more liberal model). The jury is still out which country will be the first to leave poverty and lead Africa in development.

Ed’s Note: Roel van der Veen is professor of International Relations at the University of Amsterdam. He wrote books on the development of Africa and Asia. He is also the Academic Advisor of the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs. He presented this lecture at UN ECA in Addis Ababa on April 22, 2015.

What should be the response of other Africans

We must live by code of constructiveness

Ethiopia

Profile on the Black Diaspora

Continents by Black people

  1. South America 130 million – Brazil 110 million, Colombian 11 million,Venezuela 5 million, Peru 2 million, Ecuador 1 million, Guyana 400,000, Suriname 300,000, Uruguay 300,000, French Guiana 200,000
  2. North America 86 million- United States 48-50 million, Haiti 10 million, Dominican Republic 9.2 million, Cuba 7 million, Jamaica 3 million, Puerto Rico 2 million, Panama 2 million,Trinidad and Tobago 1 million, Canada 1 million, Nicaragua 700,000, Honduras 600,000, Mexico 450,000, Costa Rica 400,000, Bahamas 300,000, Belize 260,000, Barbados 200,000
  3. Europe 7.8 million-France Admixture 3 million , UK Admixture 2 million , Germany 1 million
  4. Asia 5 million
  5. Oceania 200,000  – Australia 195,000, New Zealand 5,000

Regions – Latin America 160-170 million

North America  65 million

Europe 8 million

Black Majority Countries – 1. Haiti, 2. Dominican Republic, 3. Cuba, 4. Jamaica, 5. Trinidad, 6. Guyana, 7. Bahamas, 8. Suriname, 9. Belize 10. Barbados 11. Various other Caribbean Islands

220 million Blacks live outside of Africa, mostly in the Americas

African diaspora_slave trade

Languages they Speak –

  1. Portuguese – 110 million (Brazil)
  2. English – 55 million (United States, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Bahamas, Belize, Barbados, Saint Lucia, Grenada, Dominica, Antigua, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Bermuda )
  3. Spanish 43 million (Dominican Republic, Colombia, Cuba, Venezuela, Puerto Rico, Panama, Peru, Ecuador, Nicaragua, Honduras, Costa Rica, Mexico, Uruguay)
  4. French 11 million (Haiti, Martinique and Guadeloupe, French Guiana)

Countries with largest Black populations in the Americas

1. Brazil 110 million (51%) language Portuguese

Names Black Brazillian, Afro Brazillian, Afro Descendente

Religion Catholic Christian

Admixture 55% African

Purported African Place of Origin – Angola, Nigeria, some Ghanaian

Music Samba Bossa Nova

Sports Soccer

Average income $5,000

Where they live (Black Majority Areas) – Northeast Brazil (especially Bahia) Live in all the Major Cities

Better off in Brazil or Africa. Disputed

Movements for Change – Movimento Negro

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Interesting facts – Highest mix rate with Whites, Highest Population of people of African descent outside of Africa. Second largest Black society after Nigeria.

2. US 50 million(14%) language English

Names Black American,African American,American Black, Formerly Colored,Negro

Code name-Urban Community,Inner City,Minority,People of Color

Religion Protestant Christian

Purported Place of Origin – Nigerian Igbo, Others

Admixture 70% African

Music – Rap, R&B, Jazz, Gospel, Blues

Sports – Basketball,Football,Boxing,Track and Field

Average income $34,000

Better off in U.S orAfrica. U.S

Where they live (The South, Urban areas of Northeast, Midwest, and West Coast

Interesting facts – Second Highest population of Blacks in Diaspora, 5th largest Black society

Movements for Change – NAACP, SNCC, Nation of Islam

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Interesting facts – Wealthiest group in the Diaspora

3. Colombia 11 million (25%) language Spanish

Religion Catholic Christian

Purported place of Origin – Congo, Nigeria

Music – Cumbia, Champeta

Sports-Soccer

Average income $4,000

Famous AfroColombians- Raul Cuero (Scientist), writers like Manuel Zapata Olivella and politicians: Piedad Córdoba, Paula Marcela Moreno Zapata, and Luis Gilberto Murillo, Miss Colombia 2001 winner and fashion model Vanessa Alexandra Mendoza Bustos, Miss Colombia 2015 winner and fashion model Jealisse Andrea Tovar Velásquez,

Better off in Colombia or Africa. Africa

Interesting Facts – Cartegena was the Biggest slave port in Spanish America. Areas that have alot of AfroColombians is the Choco department, Carribbean region, and San Andres Islands. 1993 Law 70, grants collective land rights to Afro-descendants.  13 Afro-Colombian members of Congress, from 2006

Movements for Change –

Almirante_Padilla

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Travelling in Colombia

4. Haiti 10 million (99%) language French and Creole

Religion Catholic Christian and Voodoo

Purported Place of Origin – Benin, and Western Nigeria

Admixture 95% African

Music- Compas

Sports – Soccer

Average income $759

Where they live – All over

Better off in Haiti or Africa. Africa

Movements for Change – Haitian Revolution of 1791 – 1804

Général_Toussaint_Louverture

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Interesting fact – Poorest Most African group in the Diaspora.

Largest Black Majority country in the Americas. Most Homogenous Black Country in the Americas.Blackest country outside of Africa

5. Dominican Republic 9.3 million (86-89%) language Spanish

Religion Catholic Christian

Purported Place of Origin – Congo, Angola, Western Nigeria

Admixture 50% African  (85% Mulatto 15% Pure)

Music Meringue Bachata

Sports Baseball

Average income $6,000

Where they live – All Over, But Particularly Eastern Part

Famous Black Dominicans – David Ortiz, Fabulous, Vladimir Guerrero, Dania Ramirez, Arlenis Sosa, Pedro Martinez

Better off in the Dominican Republic or Africa. Dominican Republic

Sammy Sosa (Photo by Lawrence Lucier/FilmMagic)
Sammy Sosa (Photo by Lawrence Lucier/FilmMagic)

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She has large ear-rings

Interesting facts- Least Culturally African group in the Diaspora. Black Group in the Diaspora not to have been seriously colonized by whites.

Blackest Spanish speaking Country

6. Cuba 7 million (62%) language Spanish

Religion Catholic Christian

Purported Place of Origin – Western Nigeria, and Congo, Angola

Admixture 60% African  (80% Mulatto, 20% Pure)

Music Salsa

Sports Baseball Track and Field Basketball Volleyball

Average income $5000

Better off in Cuba or Africa. Disputed

Where they live – Havana, Eastern Cuba such as Oriente Province

Famous Afro Cubans – Celia Cruz Singer, Christina Milian actress, Faison Love Actor and Comedian, Gina Torres Actress, Gilbert Arenas Basketball player,

Interesting facts – AfroCubans made uo 92% of the Liberation Army that fought against Spain for independence. AfroCubans are the most educated (Most Black Doctors in Latin America), healthiest, safest, and Culturally Conscious Blacks in Latin America.

Movements for Change – Liberation Army, Partido Independiante de Color, AfroCubanismo

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7. Jamaica 3 million (98%) language English

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Religion Protestant Christian

Purported Place of Origin – Akan Ghana, and Nigeria

Admixture 78% African, 16% European, 6% Asian

Music Reggae,Dancehal

Sports Track and Field

Average income $6000

Better off in Jamaica or Africa. Jamaica

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trafalgarsquaresmaller

8. Afro Venezuelan 3 million (10%) language Spanish

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Religion Catholic Christian

Place of Origin – Fon Benin, Ewe Ghana, Mandinka, and Kongo Angolan

Admixture 55% African

Music – Reggaeton

Sports Soccer, and Baseball

Average income $5,000

Where they live – Barlovento Region in Northeast Central , and Major Cities.

Better off in Venezuela or Africa. Africa

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9. Peru 2 million (1.5%)

Schalke_Jefferson_Farfan_1

Religion Catholic Christian

Place of Origin in Africa – Unknown

Music

Sports Soccer

Average income – $4,500

Better off in Peru or Africa. Africa

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10. Puerto Rico 2 million language Spanish

Religion Catholic Christian

Place of Origin in Africa – Yoruba Nigeria, Ghana, and Dahomey, and the region known as the area of Guineas

Admixture 33% African

Music-Reggaetton

Sports-Baseball and Basketball

Average income  $25,000

Better off in Puerto Rico or Africa. Puerto Rico

Roberto-Clemente-4

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11. Trinidadian 1 million (62%) language English

Religion Protestant Christian

Purported Place of Origin – Nigerian Igbo, Congo, Malinke

Admixture 70%African

Music Calypso

Average Income $32,000 ( Third Richest in Diaspora)

Better off in Trinidad or Africa.Trinidad

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12. Black Canadian (Mostly Carribbean Immigrants and descendants from runaway Black American slaves) 1 million (3%) language English and some French

Religion – Protestant and Catholic

Music – Rap and Reggae

Sports – Basketball

Religion Protestant and Catholic

Admixture 80% African

Music – Copy American rap and Jamaican reggae and dancehall

Sports Basketball Track and Field Hockey

Average income-$31,000 ( Second Richest in Diaspora)

Better off in Canada or Africa. Canada

Canada's Governor General Michaelle Jean delivers the Speech from the Throne in the Senate chamber on Parliament Hill in Ottawa January 26, 2009. REUTERS/Chris Wattie (CANADA)

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13. AfroPanamanian 1,000,000 (20%- 50% might have Black Heritage)

language Spanish

Manuel-Noriega-_2064092b

Religion Catholic Christian

Purported Place of Origin – Guinea, Senegambia

Admixture – (48% Mulatto, Pure Black 28%, Zambo 24%

Average income $9,000

Where they live – Colon Province, Panama City, Bocas Del Toro Province

Better off in Panama or Africa. Panama

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Interesting – Richest Spanish speaking Black group (Panama is third richest Latin American country Chile and Uruguay)

Movements for Change – National Center of Panamanian Workers(CNTP)

14. Ecuador 1 million (6%) language Spanish

Aspencer1966

Religion-Catholic Christian

Admixture-Unknown high level of mixing

Music

Sports-Soccer

Average income $4,000

Better off in Ecuador or Africa. Africa

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Afro ecuadorians

15. Martinique and Guadeloupe 800,000 (90%) language French

Religion Catholic

Admixture 70% African

Music Zouk

Average Income $25,000

Better off in Martinique and Guadeloupe or Africa. Martinique and Guadeloupe

cesaire

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Interesting facts – Wealthiest French Speaking group

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16. Nicaragua 700,000 (9%) language Spanish

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Religion Catholic Christian

Music  –

Average income $1,700

Better off in Nicaragua or Africa. Africa

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16. Afro Honduran 600,000 (8%)language Spanish

800px-Manuel_Bonilla

Religion Catholic

Admixture

Average income 1500

Better off in Honduras or Africa. Africa

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honduran women assembly

16. Afro Mexican 450000 (.4%)

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16. Black Costa Rican 400000 (7%) language Spanish

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Religion Catholic and Protestant Christian

Admixture

Music Reggae

Average income

Better off in Costa Rica

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Interesting Facts – Most AfroCostaRicans live in the Limon Region

17. AfroGuyanese 400000 (47%) language English

LFSB

Religion Protestant Christian

Admixture-70-80% Black or African

Music- Soca

Sports-Cricket

Average income-$3,500

Better off in Guyana or Africa. Guyana

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18. AfroSurinamese 300000 (38%) language Dutch

800px-President_Bouterse

Religion- Protestant

Place of Origin in Africa – Akan Ghana

Admixture 60% African

Music – Kaseko

Average income – $9,000

Better in Suriname or Africa

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Interesting facts – Largest Dutch speaking group, more Surinamese live in Holland than in the Suriname

19. Afro Uruguayan 300000 (5%) language Spanish

Cayetano_Silva

Religion Catholic Spanish

Admixture

Music – Candombe

Average in Income – $11,000

Better off in Uruguay or Africa. Disputed

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20. Bahamian 350,000 (90%) language English

Sidney Poitier Life Acheivement Award
Sidney Poitier
Life Acheivement Award

Religion Protestant Christian

Purported Place of Origin – Nigerian Igbo and Yoruba, Mandinke Sierra Leone, Cote D’Ivoire

Admixture 85% African

Average Income $31,000

21. Belizean 260000 language (32%) language English

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Religion Catholic Spanish

Admixture

Music

Average income $4,800

Better of in Belize or Africa. Belize

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21. Barbados 250000 (96%) language English

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Names Barbadian,Bajan

Religion Protestant Christian

Purported Place of Origin in Africa – East and West Nigeria, and Akan Ghana

Admixture 85% African

Music Reggae

Average income $20000

Better off in Barbados or Africa. Barbados

22. French Guiana 250000 language French

Christiane_Taubira_par_Claude_Truong-Ngoc_juin_2013

Religion Catholic Christian

Admixture 66% African

Music – Zouk

Sports – Soccer

Average income 20,000

Better off in French Guiana or Africa. French Guiana

24. Dutch Antilles 200000 language Dutch

Religion Protestant Christian

Admixture 70 % Black

Average income – $37,000

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Richest Dutch speaking group

25. Afro Guatemalan 200,000 (2%) language Spanish

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Religion – Catholic

Admixture –

Average income – $3,800

Better off in Guatemala or Africa. Africa

Afro-Guatemalan-women

26. Saint Lucia  175,000  (90%)

Language – English

Religion Protestant

Admixture – 70-80% Black

Average income – $7,7000

27. Afro Argentine 150000 (.37)language Spanish

Tomas_Platero_IV

Religion – Catholic

Admixture – ?

Music Tango

Average income – ?

Better off in Africa or Argentina. Argentina

Interesting fact- Used to have a high Black population

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28.Saint Vincent 109,000

Saint Vincention

Language – English

Religion Protestant

Admixture 60-70%

Music – Reggae

Average income – $6,300

29. Virgin Islander  134,000   (80%)

Language – English

Average salary-$40,000

Religion – Protestant Christian

Admixture

Music- Reggae

Sports = Cricket

Better of in Africa- Virgin Islands

30. Grenada  105,000  (95%)

Language – English

Religion – Protestant Christian

Admixture 85%

Music – Reggae

Sports-Track and Field, Cricket

31. Antigua & Barbuda  90,000

Language – English

Religion – Protestant Christian

Music – Reggae

Admixture – ?

Sports – Cricket

Average income – $13,000

Better off in Africa – Antigua and Barbuda

32. Dominica  72,000 (97%)

Language – English

Religion Protestant Christian

Admixture

Music – Reggae

Sports – Cricket

Average income $7,000

33. Saint Kitts and Nevis 55,000

Language English

Religion Protestant

Admixture – ?

Sports – Cricket

Music – Reggae

Sports – ?

Average Income   $14,400

34. Bermuda  65,000

Language – English

Religion – Protestant Christian

Admixture – 70%

Sports – Cricket

Music – Reggae

Average income – $84,000

Better off in Bermuda or Africa. Bermuda

Interesting facts – Wealthiest Black people in the Diaspora per capita, 7th Highest IQ in the world at 100

35. Cayman Islands  55,000  60% English

Religion – Protestant

Admixture –

Music – Carribbean Music

Average income – $47,000

Better off in Cayman Islands or Africa

Interesting facts – Only British Colony that has a high percentage of Mixed Race people

36. Afro Bolivian 30,000 (.1) language Spanish

Augusto_Andaveris

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Religion – Roman Catholic

Admixture – ?

Music Saya

Average income – $2,500

Better off in Bolivia or Africa. Better off in Africa but accustomed to Bolivia

Interesting facts – Country with lowest Black percentage

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Worst race riots in American History

The United States has had more riots than any other country most of them about race

Attacks on Blacks

Here are the five worst ones

  1. Tulsa 1921-more than one thousand homes and businesses were destroyed, while credible estimates of riot deaths range from fifty to three hundred. By the time the violence ended, the city had been placed under martial law, thousands of Tulsans were being held under armed guard, and the state’s second-largest African American community had been burned to the ground.

2. Thibodaux Massacre 50-200 dead

3. Elaine massacre: Black men in Elaine, a small town in eastern Arkansas, met in the fall of 1919 to discuss how to collect more money for their cotton crops. During the meeting, a white man who was deputized was shot. In the riot that followed, as many as 200 black people were shot and killed.

4. East Saint Louis riot of 1917 100 dead White rioters, many of them ethnic immigrants, killed an estimated 100 black residents of East St. Louis, after black residents had killed two white policemen.

5. Slocum Massacre

6. Chicago 1919

7. Omaha 1920

Attacks on Asians

Chinese massacre of 1871 was a racially motivated riot on October 24, 1871 in Los Angeles, when a mob of over 500 white men entered Chinatown to attack, rob, and murder Chinese residents of the city.[1] The riots took place on Calle de los Negros (Street of the Negroes), also referred to as “Nigger Alley”, which later became part of Los Angeles Street. An unknown total of Chinese immigrants, estimated at around 20,[1] were systematically killed by the mob, making the so-called “Chinatown War” one of the largest incidents of mass lynching in American history.

The Rock Springs massacre, also known as the Rock Springs Riot, occurred on September 2, 1885, in the present-day United States city of Rock Springs in Sweetwater County, Wyoming. The riot, between Chinese immigrant miners and white immigrant miners, was the result of racial tensions and an ongoing labor dispute over the Union Pacific Coal Department‘s policy of paying Chinese miners lower wages than white miners. This policy caused the Chinese to be hired over the white miners, which further angered the white miners and contributed to the riot. Racial tensions were an even bigger factor in the massacre. When the rioting ended, at least 28 Chinese miners were dead and 15 were injured. Rioters burned 75 Chinese homes resulting in approximately US$150,000 in property damage[1][2][3]($3.95 million in present-day terms[4]).

Latinos

The Zoot Suit Riots were a series of racial attacks in 1943 in Los Angeles, California, United States, betweenMexican American youths and European American servicemen stationed in Southern California. White servicemen and civilians attacked Mexican youths who wore zoot suits because they were considered unpatriotic and luxurious during wartime, in which ration was required for the World War II war effort. While most of the violence was toward the Mexican youth, young African American and Filipino/Filipino Americans were among those attacked as well because they also sported zoot suits.[1] The Zoot Suit Riots were related to fears and hostilities aroused by the coverage of the Sleepy Lagoon murder trial, following the killing of a young Latino man in a barrio near Los Angeles. The riot appeared to trigger similar attacks that year against Latinos inChicago, San Diego, Oakland, Evansville, Philadelphia, and New York City.[2]

During the Great Depression, in the early 1930s the United States deported between 500,000 and 2 million people (including up to 1.2 million U.S. citizens) of Mexican descent[4] to Mexico (see Mexican Repatriation),to reduce calls on limited American resources. By the late 1930s about 3 million Mexican Americans resided in the United States. Because of its history as part of the Spanish Empire, Los Angeles had the highest concentration of Mexicans outside Mexico.[5]

As early residents, the Latinos occupied historic areas. In addition, they had long been informally segregated and restricted to an area of the city with the oldest, most run-down housing.[5] Job discrimination in Los Angeles forced many Mexicans to work for below-poverty level wages.[6][7] The Los Angeles newspapers described Mexicans by using racially inflammatory propaganda, suggesting a problem with juvenile delinquency.[8][9][10] These factors caused much racial tension between Mexicans and whites