We need to talk about “Black Money”: using our purchasing power to create jobs, build businesses and increase wealth

 

 

 

 

Note from BW of Brazil: In reality, the title of this article basically says it all. In recent years we’ve seen a surge in what has been called afroempreendedorismo, meaning Afro-entrepreneurialism; Afro-Brazilians entering the world of business with a focus on specializing in, targeting and selling to a public that defines itself according to its African ancestry. It goes without saying that it is a wonderful concept. In a world in which countless ethnic groups and communities unify themselves to empower themselves, it is the only viable option for Afro-Brazilians to approach their situation from a position of power. This type of thinking is LONG overdue and applies equally to African descendant populations across the globe.

 

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But for me, it’s not enough to simply create opportunities for individual blacks to become millionaires and billionaires. Without commitment, long term goals and unity as a community, individual black wealth means nothing. It can only go beyond the individual when regular people decide to pool their resources together, support the growth of black business and when the richer people of the group dedicate themselves to helping others in their group reach the same success and then those most successful investing in the empowerment of the community. 

But let’s not fool ourselves. There are several obstacles that I see in reaching such a grandiose idea. A few of those obstacles, in no particular order are: 1) Afro-Brazilians don’t act as a community. And by community I don’t simply mean the proximity of living in the same neighborhood and sharing the same culture. As Dr. Claud Anderson explains so well, “a community signifies commitment and the potential for power”. And when the vast majority of Afro-Brazilians spend their money with non-Afro-Brazilians and those who receive this money don’t re-invest back into the Afro-Brazilian community, the fact that the black Brazilian population moves around R$800 billion per year means nothing! It is money being spent that will not benefit Afro-Brazilians as a whole. 

Another obstacle in any talk of ‘black money’ and ‘black community’ is the fact that most physical neighborhoods in Brazil are not overwhelmingly Afro-Brazilian. And this fact becomes even more challenging when we consider that a large percentage of those who are counted as part of the more than 100 million Afro-Brazilians (pretos e pardos or black and browns) don’t consider themselves black and thus most likely will have nothing to do with any sort of ‘black money’ project. And along those lines, we find another obstacle which is a lack of unity. Afro-Brazilians, as a whole, have never been taught the concept of unity and acting with group interest to empower themselves as a community. Whenever an Afro-Brazilian earns an education and  a salary that ensures a middle class lifestyle but doesn’t share and pass on that success and knowledge with/to people who have a similar outlook and dedication, within a generation or two it would be as if that success never happened for that individual Afro-Brazilian. 

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And perhaps the biggest obstacle to any talk of ‘black money’/’black community’ that applies to any black population is the belief in the fundamentals of integration. Whether we speak of the experience of O negro no mundo dos brancos (the black in the world of whites), the famous book by Brazilian sociologist Florestan Fernandes or Gunnar Myrdal’s An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy, the solution for or focus on the ‘black problem’ has always been the integration of blacks into the white world. But again, both in the United States and Brazil, the power structures are dominated by persons with white skin and as such, in the end, integration under a system of white supremacy simply leads to black exploitation. 

With these obstacles in mind, I conclude that this discussion of ‘black money’ DOES need to happen but without a blueprint, educating and re-organizing over a period of several decades, the concept will never advance beyond anything but a dream. But let the discussion begin…

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We need to talk about “Black Money”

By Fernanda Ribeiro

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According to a survey made by the Sebrae, based on data from the Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (Pnad or National Research by Household Sampling), blacks account for the majority of entrepreneurs in the country. I confess that I never I saw all the beauty in this data and when I detailed the research, the disappointment was even greater. Yes, we are the majority among entrepreneurs in Brazil and yet our income corresponds to half of the empresário branco (white businessman). Unfortunately blacks undertake in sectors of lower profitability and often unplanned, it’s the famous “entrepreneur by necessity.” This number also brings another aspect, if blacks are undertaking this by necessity, it is often because they have lost their formal jobs and need to survive.

Gradually these numbers tend to improve, considering that many young blacks see entrepreneurship as a tool of social change and are following this path with more technical preparation. And I start to think about the strategies we are using to keep the circulation of this money within our community and  empowering ourselves economically, this movement is popularly known as “black money”. Whenever we think about this subject, quickly there is an association with the American black community and its decision-making power.

Traders At Nairobi Stock Exchange

I understand that the post-slavery process in the United States was totally different from ours, but one question doesn’t leave my mind: Why don’t have a “banco negro” (black bank) in Brazil? African-Americans have several options of banks founded and chaired by black entrepreneurs. The OneUnited Bank is the largest and was created precisely in order to measure the purchasing power of the African-American population and channels it to create jobs, build businesses and increase wealth.

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Even with all the possible questions, there they use economic power as a protest tool. Recently after the constant deaths of black American youth, a movement called BankBlackChallange was created. The action aims to generate economic migrations, ie, blacks move their investments from “bancos brancos” (white banks) to the “bancos negros” (black banks).

This movement was joined by famous blacks such as singers Usher and Solange Knowles and rapper Killer Mike. Another example was the increase in the sale of football player Colin Kaepernick in NFL stores. The athlete became known worldwide after he refused to stand to sing the national anthem in protest to the oppression of blacks. And I always ask myself, why not do the same here where we are the numerical majority of the population?

Today we work with a model that I call Black Money à brasileira (Brazilian Black Money), which works based on two grounds: “Se não me vejo, não compro (sem boicotes pesados” (If I don’t see myself, I  don’t buy) (without heavy boycotts)” and “Compro de afroempreendedores para fortalecer os seus negócios” (I buy from afroempreendedores – entrepreneurs of African descent – to strengthen their business). I am an adept to the movement, but I believe we can go further. According to Etnus consultancy, specializing in the study of the black consumer profile, every year the black population moves something around 800 billion reais. Are we really empowering ourselves economically speaking?

For years, I worked in a multinational company that had a list of 7 “commandments”, I highlight here one that always called my attention, “He doesn’t have the intelligence to create has to have courage to copy.” No, I didn’t bring this reference in order to underestimate our intelligence, but I confess that as a community we could “hack” some strategies of economic empowerment existing around the world.

Particularly I really like the story of Muhammad Yunus, an Indian economist and Nobel Peace Prize (proving that capitalism is not always a bogeyman). Yunus founded the Grameen Bank and other 50 companies in Bangladesh, most of them as social businesses. His business started with microloans for poor people without the same requirements and guarantees imposed by local financial institutions. Seven years later, it became an official bank, mainly serving women in rural Bangladesh and disburses more than $1.5 billion per year.

We are going through a time where we question our real role in society, especially from the point of view of consumption, where we are also living in a time of transition and learning how to demand from the market a more committed posture. Considering these factors, emerging in Brazil is a new type of enterprise, more responsible and interested in the positive impact on society, the so-called negócios sociais (social businesses).

According to Artemisia, pioneering organization in the dissemination and promotion of social businesses in Brazil, today there are approximately 5,000 companies working with this concept. Here comes another question, could it be that most are managed or founded by blacks? I have attended some events with this theme and I find very few and ask myself, are we losing our voice even when we are the object of business?

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We have to overcome some indisposition and we need to learn to talk about money, yes. Without judgments, accusations, submissions and guilt. We need to thicken our voice, occupy all the spaces and think of strategies to stop thinking of Black Money in such a distant and utopian way. I believe that at this time there are still successful recipes for us to solve the financial issues of our community, but I believe that following the paths of social business is a good option, considering the economic movement and the impact to be generated as a whole.

* Fernanda Ribeiro is one of the founders and vice president of the Associação Afrobusiness Brasil (Afrobusiness Brazil Association). She has a degree in tourism and is a post-graduate in the area of corporate communications. She worked in multinational companies in the air segment in the areas of quality, customer experience, training and internal communications. She also dedicated herself to the development of actions and programs to promote diversity, economic and social inclusion related to the gender and ethnic-racial themes.

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Game Changers:In historic fashion parade, rapper Emicida releases his clothing line at São Paulo Fashion Week with cast featuring 90% black models

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In an historical parade, Emicida puts black and overweight models on as protagonists in SPFW with his clothing line

It took a rapper invading the catwalk to show the obvious: a parade with mostly black models is as or more beautiful than a parade of Scandinavian whites. There is no possible argument after watching the the LAB parade.

By  Wendy Candido (Rap Nacional Download) with info from Ego, Vogue, Elle, M de Mulher

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The second day of parades of São Paulo Fashion Week ended in a grand and exciting way, and certainly made history on Monday (October 24th) with the debut of the Laboratório Fantasma, the clothing line of rapper Emicida and his brother Evandro Fióti.

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With a casting, comprised of 90% black models, the mission of the brand at the event was to bring the fashion world a more inclusive, democratic discourse, and, of course, representativeness.

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The main objective of LAB, as the line is affectionately known, is to show the diversity and freedom from all knowledge of the struggle of black people throughout the world and the harsh reality of everyday life of the broken, very well known by the brothers Emicida and Fióti.

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The collection, which is called Yasuke, the name given to black Samurais, had creative direction of João Pimenta, a renowned designer who participated in SPFW for years, and mixes Eastern, African and street influences. Under the blessing of Emicida, the pieces were presented by people of all types (black, fat, tall, short…) escaping from world standards of the catwalks and representing those who we see on the streets every day, that is, real people, who consumes a lot of fashion and often only don’t consume more because most brands bar offering offer sizes that go past 44. In short, the LAB parade is nothing like what the one is accustomed to seeing at the São Paulo fashion week.

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Entre the looks, all in black, white and red, the singers Seu Jorge and Ellen Oléria also paraded in what was a great celebration of cultura afro and national rap.

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In an interview with Vogue, Emicida detailed he how deals with the similarities between the creative processes in music and fashion.

“Creation is a blank sheet on all platforms. Creating a track or designing shirt, what I want is to tell a story. This is a delicious sensation.”

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For its first participation in SPFW, the line came with a lot of maturity, full of innovation and authenticity – Watch the whole parade, complete with an Emicida rhyme.

Knowing full well the importance of the visual of his parade, the rapper and his brother explained the vision they had for the parade.

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“We put on the catwalk ordinary people, who deal with reality. We see a many things, not only in fashion, that don’t reflect the reality of the country. We are showing what Brazil is,” Emicida said. When asked about the casting of the models, the rapper replied:

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“In general, people look at the catwalk here and it seems that they’re looking at the catwalks of Sweden. We can look at the casting of our show through the lens of the occupation and also the representation of beauty, self-esteem and elegance. For a long time it was not associated with pessoas pretas e à periferia (black people and the periphery). What we are doing now is getting all this back. Evandro and I participated in the choice of each person to participate, we didn’t leave this decision in the hands of anyone. And we didn’t go only by the profile, we also exchanged an idea to know who they were.”

“We aren’t not making any kind of protest. Just portraying Brazil as it really is. Fashion has to be inclusive and not generate grief or destroy dreams,” Fióti said. “We want to show a Brazil rarely or never seen in this structure of the fashion week. LAB wins with the entry in the line-up and the SPFW wins with the veracity of our work. This may reflect positively in the minds of many people, hopefully act as a further help to change thoughts and attitudes of the entire ecosystem of the industry. That’s what I hope to garner,” he concludes.

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The models celebrated. “The idea is very cool. Society needs to see that there is room for everyone. If it was the reverse, with mostly whites, no one would find it strange,” said Arthur Lopes. “I thought the initiative was incredible. In other clothing lines, when there are two black girls it’s a lot,” said Natiele Alves.

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The challenge to a SPFW that’s usually lilly white was also not missed by Elle magazine:

“In Emicida’s show, he really wanted to reflect on the beauty of the streets, of the public using their clothes and not bending toward the standards. […] It’s clear that the rapper was keen to reverse the percentage and put on a beautiful display of 90% black versus 10% white to show how a more colorful world of fashion would be. And whoever saw it, knows: it’s beautiful, proud, with intelligent and desirable clothes.”

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Are black and money are rival words???

By Bruno Rico

We must learn to recognize something historic, and this week something happened up for history, which was the launch of the brand Lab, by rapper Emicida and his brother Fióti, in the biggest fashion event in Latin America, São Paulo Fashion Week.

The launch was historic for many reasons, the parade managed to insert practically all the elements that everybody involved in militancy always complain of not having, and when it has it, here come people complaining, and that my text today is especially directed to this group.

First it is important to say that the Laboratório Fantasma has been around for a long time in the market, it functions as a record label, producer, cultural vehicle, etc.; I can say that I’m talking about a collective created to promote hip-hop, urban and black culture in general, in addition to other things, and of these things emerged a clothing brand, which until recently sold the clothes of its latest collection for the single price of R$14.00. All this already shows how Emicida was always a man ahead of his time, a born artist, a visionary entrepreneur, black with no strings attached, and he is more than right, as our ancestors were already tied up for too long, the equivalent of several future generations, and now this next generation is saying we have to be imprisoned again, this doesn’t cut it anymore!

In spite of already having done a lot, Emicida decided to go beyond, and from  Laboratório Fantasma he launched a collection that comes with a new look, getting his foot in the door of the fashion market.

In my thirty years, I’ve never seen a black guy who rose from poverty to launching his clothing brand and already the guy launches it in an event that is a world reference in terms of fashion. If this isn’t showing off to you, for me, it’s a lot!

Another extremely important point of the parade, and for me the most important of all is the question of representativeness, because almost all models were black, not to mention the designer was also, and is this not what the guys are always complaining? In addition, the brand even bothered to put on overweight models, but I’m not talking about those chubby ones with no stomach that appear in most plus size fashion shows, I’m talking about gordo de verdade (the real fat ones), people who need 5G clothes, and with Lab they will find these cloths.

Mas Emicida and his brother Fióti could have just been around there, after all, a bunch of blacks together in a walkway was a lot of already, and already would be an achievement, but they still went further, as the brand even bothered to release prints with African themes, all connected to the history of Yasuke, a black samurai that I had never heard of, but that I learned about thanks to Lab. Look how sensational this was! You launch a brand and still convey culture with all of this; search for Yasuke, the parade was cool, there’s a cartoon and everything and all the kids will fall in love with it. Soon, I’ll release a book called Piye, which is already ready, only missing a publisher, and Piye, for those who do not know, was the first great black Pharaoh of Egypt, so I thought the history of Yasuke was sensational.

In the midst of such representation, we still had as models: musician Seu Jorge, actress Cris Vianna, rapper Karol Conka, Rashid, the former Globeleza Nayara Justino, who was practically fired from the post for ser preta demais (being too black), remember her? Well then, all of this crowd was there, among many others, including models who live in slums.

But all of this wasn’t enough, there were still a lot of people complaining, and gente preta(black people), because I didn’t see white people commenting on the matter, and even I saw them, it wouldn’t matter to me, because what bothers me most is when I see blacks criticizing blacks, especially when that black seems to concern himself with the evolution of the other black, because I can only understand it in this way, as in my Facebook I already questioned three siblings that were against to the show, I asked them to show me a solution, in regards to the problem they had submitted, only that so far no one has responded.

To be continued…

Black Brazil a sleeping Giant?

Interesting facts

Largest Black population outside of Africa at 115 million about 54%of the population with a spending power of $500 billion

Africans and their descendants made up the economic backbone of Brazil for the first four centuries of its history

The Portuguese were the first to transport slaves from Africa. and the last to end the slave trade.

Salvador largest Black Majority City outside Africa

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Cultural contributions

  1. Soccer

Black Brazilians dominate Soccer and have helped Brazil win more World Cups than any other country

2. Samba

Samba is a dance authentic to black/African people in Brazil who brought much of their music and dance culture into Latin America with, them upon arrival into many Latin American countries. Samba music is very similar to many Angolan music genres. Angola is a country on the western coast of southern Africa. Angolan music not only influenced Samba music, but many other Latin American music genres and dances

3. Capoeira

4. Education

History -Last country to abolish slavery caused by slave revolts

According to the Brazilian constitution of 1988, racism is a crime for which bail is not available, and must be met with 6 months to 8 years imprisonment. This is taken very seriously. However, the law only seems to apply to overt, unquestionably racist statements and actions

High levels of race mixing 33% of marriages are interracial

Famous Afro Brazillians

Pele –

Most accomplished Soccer player in the World

Ronaldinho

Anderson Silva

Ronaldo

 

Neymar

Marina Silva-  a Brazilian environmentalist and politician. Would have been Brazil’s first Black President

Joaquin Barbosa

Benedita  Da Silva –  The first female and Afro-Brazilian governor of the State of Rio de Janeiro and, later, Minister of the said Secretary of State[1]

Tais Araujo – She was the first Black Brazilian actress to be a protagonist in a Brazilian telenovela, Xica da Silva (1996), in Rede Manchete.[1] She was also a protagonist on another telenovela, Da Cor do Pecado (2004) in Rede Globo channel.

Sharon Menezzes – Actress

Paulo Zulu – Actor/Model

Camila Pitanga – Is a Brazilian filmand television actress, former fashion design model and television presenter. She is internationally renowned for her roles in films and telenovelas. In films, she is known for her roles in Quilombo, Caramuru: A Invenção do Brasil,Redentor, Eu Receberia as Piores Notícias dos Seus Lindos Lábios, Uma História de Amor e Fúria among others. In television she is known for her roles in Paraíso Tropical, Cama de Gato, Lado a Lado and Babilônia.

Raissa Santa – Miss Brazil 2016

Giberto Gil – is a Brazilian singer, guitarist, and songwriter, known for both his musical innovation and political commitment. From 2003 to 2008, he served as Brazil’s Minister of Culture in the administration of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva. Gil’s musical style incorporates an eclectic range of influences, including Rock music, Brazilian genres including samba, African music, and reggae.

Heloisa Assis – The Richest Black Woman in Brazil. Founder and CEO of Beleza Natural, a chain of beauty Institutes and a cosmetics factory, specialised in curly hair treatments in Brazil. Beleza Natural currently has 4000 employees, 35 locations in 5 different states, a factory, 5 training centers and annual revenues of more than $100 million US Dollars. it’s headed toward 1 billion reais ($451 million) in sales by 2018, according to the company. Brazil is the world’s third-largest market for hygiene and personal care.

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Rachel Maia – CEO of Pandora jewelry in Brazil

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Geraldo Rufino – Founder of JR Diesel. The company earns 50 million a year and has a hundred employees.

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Fernanda Garay-

A Black Brazilian professional volleyball player who won the 2012 Summer Olympics gold medal with the Brazil national team.[Garay is a sergeant[4] and she played at the 2011 Military World Games volleyball tournament, winning the won the gold medal[5] and the Most Valuable Player and Best Spiker individual awards.[6]

Aleijadinho – was a Colonial Brazil-born sculptor and architect, noted for his works on and in various churches of Brazil.Within a very short time he had become a noted architect himself and had designed and constructed the Chapel of the Third Order of St. Francis of Assisi in Ouro Preto. He had also executed the carvings on the building, the most notable being a round bas-relief depicting St. Francis receiving the stigmata.

André Rebouças – was a Brazilian military engineer, abolitionist and inventor. Serving as a military engineer during the Paraguayan War in Paraguay, Rebouças developed a torpedo,[citation needed] which was used successfully.[citation needed]

Alongside Machado de Assis and Olavo Bilac, Rebouças was a very important middle class representative with African descent, he also was one of the most important voices for the abolition of slavery in Brazil

Arlindo Veiga dos Santos and José Correa Leite

two of the founders of the Frente Negra Brasileira

Brazil already had their Black Panthers well before the movement emerged in the United States in the 1960s to guarantee the rights of the US black population; and without the necessity of using force. In September 1931, when racial discrimination and segregation were normal and acceptable practices in Brazil, a group of blacks got organized and created one of the first organizations of a national character that fought for equal social and political rights for all, regardless of skin color. It was the Frente Negra Brasileira (FNB), that later became a political party.

At the height of its existence, the FNB maintained schools so that blacks could study, as well as vocational courses

At the height of its existence, the FNB maintained schools so that blacks could study, as well as vocational courses

Zumbi- 1655 – November 20, 1695), also known as Zumbi dos Palmares (Portuguese pronunciation: [zũˈbi dus pɐwˈmaɾis]), was the last of the leaders of the Quilombo dos Palmares, a fugitive settlement in the present-day state ofAlagoas, Brazil. Quilombo dos Palmares was a self-sustaining republic of Maroons escaped from the Portuguese settlements in Brazil, “a region perhaps the size of Portugal in the hinterland of Bahia”.[1] At its height, Palmares had a population of over 30,000.

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Issues/Problems

  1. Lack of representation in

Media

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Some Black Brazillians have started to counter this and create their own magazines

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It is interesting to note International black TV images fill the void left by lack of black representation in Brazilian media

black Brazilian women

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Many Black American cultural phenoms have influenced Black Brazillians

Such as Funk music

(Rio youth display their style in the streets in the 1970s (Photo: Almir Veiga)

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Politics

Current President (Michel Temer) Cabinet All White Males in a country that is 51% Black

Previous Previous President’s Cabinet, only slightly more diverse

This is Salvador’s city council, a city that is 80% Black

Wealth

2. Poverty and Crime

Black Brazilians only make 50% of What White Brazillians make $10,000

Indeed, according to our own estimates, the proportion of students aged 16 years or less attending a private school is 22 percent for whites but only 11 percent for Afro-Brazilians

83% of Wealthy are White  & 17% of wealthy are Black and own 6% of the wealth in the Country.

70% of All Favela dwellers or poor are Black Brazilian.  Almost 30% of poor are White

Brazil has the highest number of murders of around 50,000 a year

9 of the World’s 50 most violent cities are in Brazil. More than any other country.

Brazil is the world’s largest market for crack cocaine, and a lot of the violence is fueled by drugs.

3. Racial Profiling and Police Brutality

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4. Lack of unity in identity

Triumphs –

  1. University quotas – Requiring public universities to reserve half of their admission spots for the largely poor students in the nation’s public schools and vastly increase the number of university students of African descent across the country.expected the number of black students admitted to these universities to climb to 56,000 from 8,700.

    The law obligates public universities to assign their spots in accordance with the racial makeup of each of Brazil’s 26 states and the capital, Brasília.October 2012, gives Brazil’s 59 federal universities four years to ensure that half of their incoming classes are from public schools, which generally serve poorer students. Half of those students must come from families with monthly earnings of less than $500 per capita. The pool of admitted students must also be representative of the racial mix in the local population.

Roughly 20 per cent of jobs in state governments, plus some federal institutions such as the diplomatic corps, are reserved for applicants who identify as black and mixed race.

(University of Zumbi dos Palmares is the County’s only Black university.)

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2. Teaching of Black history-Brazil passed a law in 2003 making the teaching of Afro-Brazilian and African history and culture compulsory in all public and private schools,

Read more here: http://www.miamiherald.com/news/nation-world/world/americas/article1967611.html#storylink=cpy

Raising Consciousness

Interest in Their African Culture

 

 

Interest in Building a Black Cultural Infrastructure

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2. Bolsa Família- a program started by the Labor Party which provides families with less than $100 a month earned only if the children go to school and are immunized. There are no food stamps, no WIC, no housing allowances, no Earned Income Tax Credit. There is no culture of dependency in Brazil. People work hard to survive

3. Quilombas

Ratified in 1988 after a two-decade-long military dictatorship, Brazil’s constitution states that residents of quilombos are entitled to a permanent, non-transferable title to the land they occupy — something analogous to the United States’ Native American reservations, minus the self-government.

Now, more than 1 million black Brazilians are calling upon the government to honor their constitutional right to land.When Lula’s decree was issued in 2003, there were 29 recognized quilombos in Brazil. As of 2013, that number had swelled to more than 2,400, comprising more than 1 million people, with hundreds more communities applying that have yet to be recognized.

4. high business ownership

The number of black business owners grew by 29% between 2001 and 2011 – from 8.6 million to 11 million –  while the number of white entrepreneurs increased by just one percent (from 11.4 million to 11.5 million) over the same period.

Fuelling the change has been a stronger and more stable economy and social policies, which helped the incomes of black Brazilians increase by 123% between 2000 and 2012 – five times faster than the rest of the population, according a report by Globo newspaper in 2012.like construction, agriculture and hairstyling.

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5. growing middle class

Fueled by a blossoming economy and a government program aimed at reducing income inequality, approximately 80 percent of Brazil’s new members of the middle class are black. Over the past decade, the middle class has grown by 38 percent, according to government reports from the Strategic Affairs Secretariat of the Presidency. Incomes of black Brazilians grew by 123 percent between 2000 and 2012—five times faster than the rest of the population, according to a report by Globo newspaper in 2012.

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Last September, the Brazilian government released a study, Vozes da Classe Média (Voices of the Middle Class), noting that 53 percent of Brazilians are currently in the middle class. Of these, 80 percent are Afro-Brazilian. The data was covered extensively in the Brazilian press and sparked a debate about the extent to which Brazil’s recent economic growth has generated an improved standard of living for its overall population.

On one side, optimists celebrated the data, which showed improved social mobility for about 30 million people.

The Brazilian middle class is the third fastest growing in the world, trailing only India and China.  Brazil’s middle class is urban, concentrated in the southeast (45 percent) and fascinated with technology. According to the Voices of Brazil study, if this social class were a country, it would be the twelfth most populous country in the world with 104 million people, just below Mexico.

On the other hand, skeptics said that Brazil’s middle class was different from the middle class in countries like the United States, where the middle class not only consumes goods and services but is also educated and enjoys an overall strong quality of life. Brazil’s historical lack of investment in education, its violence and its high levels of corruption have been barriers to complete social growth.

Comparisons to Black America

Pride and Sense of who they are:

Black Americans have more of a sense of who they are than Black Brazilians

Economic infrastructure:

Black Americans have more of an infrastructure due to segregation, that they were forced to build up for themselves than Black Brazillians

Business ownership:

Black Brazilians have more business ownership

Education 

Black Americans are more educated at 21% with College degrees  compared to 15% for Black Brazillians

 

Brazillian companies that do Business in Africa

Top Brazilian Companies In Africa

<span “=””>Petrobras

<span “=””>Brazil’s partly state-owned oil company, Petroleo Brasileiro SA, which is usually known as Petrobras, operates in an incredible 28 African countries. It is one of the biggest listed companies in the world and given its experience in developing deepwater fields in Brazil’s Campos Basin, it is no surprise that the firm has particular expertise in deepwater oil production. Gulf of Guinea geology is very similar to that of the Campos Basin and so Petrobras has put a great deal of effort into securing acreage in the region.

<span “=””>Petrobras has been active in Angola since 1979, although mostly as a minor player with limited stakes. However, it increased the number of blocks in which it has stakes from two to six in 2006, becoming the operator of three blocks: 6/06, 18/06 and 26. The company has had operations in Libya for even longer, although it was only in 2005 that it secured offshore acreage in the Libyan National Oil Corporation’s (NOC) first licensing rounds, taking four mainly shallow water blocks in Area 18, with 70% equity as operator. The firm has operated in Nigeria for 14 years but its assets have changed over that period. It is now a member of the Chevron consortium operating OML 127 with the Agbani deepwater field; and the OML 130 block, where operator Total produces oil on the Akpo field.

<span “=””>Apart from its operations in established oil-producing areas in Angola, Libya and Nigeria, it is now also investing in frontier exploration projects. For instance, it recently acquired a 50% stake in Benin’s Block 4 from Compagnie des Hydrocarbures Beninoise (CBH), as interest grows in prospective acreage in West Africa west of Nigeria. A spokesperson for the company revealed: “Our expectation is to find light oil, reproducing other discoveries made in other exploration activities in Africa. The arrival in Benin gives continuity to our strategy of seeking opportunities in deep and ultra deep waters in the region.” The government of Ethiopia also claims that Petrobras is preparing to invest in exploration projects in that country.

<span “=””>Adriana de Queiroz, the executive coordinator at the Brazilian Centre for International Relations, said: “Petrobras … is not going to Africa to bring back oil to Brazil. It is to grow the company in other markets. China is not there for this reason. They are there to extract resources.” Petrobras chief executive Graça Foster has called for improved national oil sector regulation in many African countries but describes the continent as a whole as an “exceptional new market”. The main threat to the company’s wider ambitions in Africa is the sheer number of other companies seeking to secure acreage. With global oil prices stubbornly in excess of $100 a barrel, the majors, Western independents and emerging Asian oil companies are all competing to secure access to attractive acreage in almost all parts of the continent.

<span “=””>Biofuels

<span “=””>Petrobras’ biofuel subsidiary Petrobras Biocombustível plans to set up an ethanol factory in Mozambique with initial production capacity of 20m litres a year to supply Mozambican customers. At a meeting organised by Brazilian state development bank Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Económico e Social (BNDES) to support Brazilian investments in Africa, Petrobras Biocombustível chairman Miguel Rosseto said: “We already produce sugar in Mozambique and will now start producing ethanol from molasses.” In 2011, the government of Mozambique passed legislation to require 10% biofuel or other alternative content in motor fuel. Brazil is the global leader in developing sugar cane ethanol technology.

<span “=””>As part of its wide-ranging reform of the oil and gas sector, the government of Nigeria has proposed turning the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) into an African version of Petrobras. This will require the NNPC to lose its regulatory role and become a more commercially driven upstream oil company. It is also likely to mean that the company will be partially privatised, opening it up to greater investor and international scrutiny. The plans underline the perception that Petrobras, like Petronas of Malaysia, is a model for other oil-producing states to follow.

<span “=””>Embraer

<span “=””>Aircraft manufacturer Embraer is proving very popular in both the civilian and military aircraft markets in Africa. It specialises in small and particularly mid-sized aircraft, which are popular on routes within the African continent, where there is often not sufficient demand to justify the use of larger planes. The Brazilian firm is well established as the third-biggest commercial plane manufacturer in the world after Boeing and Airbus but remains a long way behind its US and European rivals in terms of total sales.

In October, the company announced that it had signed a deal with the African Development Bank (AfDB) to lease its E170/190 jets to six or seven African airlines. As with the firm’s military models, the aircraft are manufactured in Brazil and their sale generates no direct manufacturing jobs in Africa. However, the AfDB estimates that the deal will generate more than 1,600 jobs with the airlines concerned, increasing the number of passengers travelling across Africa by 1.15m a year and generating $68m in new tax revenue for their respective governments.

It has been reported that Egypt Air, LAM, SA Express, Kenya Airways and Air Senegal are among the possible customers but no concrete details have been published. Tas Anvaripour, the manager for infrastructure finance within the private sector department of the AfDB, said: “By lowering operational costs, improving intra-Africa connectivity and competition, the new project could contribute to lowering airfares, thereby increasing the number of people who benefit from air transport in Africa.”

Indeed, Africa was the destination of Embraer’s 900th E190 E-Jet, which was delivered to Kenya Airways on 10th October. Paulo Cesar Silva, the company’s president of commercial aviation, commented: “The delivery of the 900th E-Jet is a great achievement for Embraer and we are very pleased to deliver this aircraft to Kenya Airways, one of Africa’s leading airlines, only eight years after the first E-Jets entered revenue service in 2004. E-Jets were the first aircraft to change traditional thinking about 70- to 120-seat aircraft and revolutionising regional transportation by bringing more connectivity or frequencies to passengers, providing more flexibility to their travelling plans, while improving the airlines’ operational efficiency.”

The aircraft was the 13th E-Jet to be purchased by Kenya Airways and another seven are due to be delivered before February 2013. Kenya Airways chief executive Titus Naikuni added: “The E190 is a versatile aircraft suited to our growth ambitions on the African continent. Given its mid-range capabilities, it ably supports our plans to fly new routes and increase frequencies on existing ones. It affords our passengers excellent cabin comfort while enhancing operating efficiency. This new acquisition brings the airline closer to our vision of flying to every capital in Africa in the next few years.”

Beyond commercial sales

Embraer is also seeking to expand into the business jet market. There are currently 420 business jets operating in Africa and Embraer believes that this number will rise to 670 by 2022, as the number of wealthy business people on the continent continues to increase sharply. Embraer Executive Jets media relations executive Ricardo Santos said: “The African business aviation market is growing fast and is offering a lot of opportunities.”

Most recently, in October, the company announced that it had delivered an unspecified number of A-29 Super Tucano light attack aircraft to the Mauritanian Air Force, making it the eighth air force to use the model. Embraer’s head of defence and security, Luiz Carlos Aguiar, said: “With this delivery, we are broadening our ties with the African continent, where this aircraft has generated great interest.” Other military orders to African customers this year include the delivery of six Super Tucano fighters to the Angolan Air Force and three more to the Burkina Faso Air Force, suitable for small air forces that cannot afford to purchase and maintain a wide range of specialist planes. Embraer has plenty of spare production capacity because a $355m contract with the US Air Force appears to have collapsed.

<span “=””>Vale

<span “=””>The biggest Brazilian investor in Africa – and one of the biggest investors in the continent from anywhere – is Companhia Vale do Rio Doce, which is usually known as Vale. It is one of the three biggest mining companies in the world and is the world’s biggest iron ore miner, controlling about 27% of the global market. It also produces coal, nickel, copper, bauxite, alumina, aluminium and a wide range of other commodities. As a result of the needs of its mining operations, it also invests heavily in power plants, railways and port infrastructure. Vale currently has investments totalling $7.7bn in nine African countries and plans to invest more than $18bn in Africa over the next five years but much will depend on the direction of global markets over that time.

The firm’s biggest investment, however, is its Moatize coal mining project in the Moatize Basin of Tete Province in northwestern Mozambique. Production began in May this year and is expected to be ramped up to 11m tonnes of coal year in the first $1.7bn phase. Almost all output will be transported eastwards to Indian Ocean ports for export, much of it to China and other Asian markets. This has required the rehabilitation of the Sena Railway between Tete and the port of Beira, plus the construction of a new coal terminal at Beira itself. Both thermal coal, used in the power generation, and metallurgical coal, used in steel production, will be mined and then exported.

However, the railway and port will be insufficient to cope with the sheer volume of coal production expected in Tete Province, so a new railway and at least two new coastal coal terminals are planned, requiring investment of billions of dollars more. The Moatize concession is just one of more than a hundred that have been taken out in Tete Province and other projects are also planned, some of which should involve the Brazilian firm. Vale Moçambique is also investigating the development of other mineral reserves elsewhere in Mozambique and has already invested $20m in phosphate exploration in the Monapo District of Nampula Province in the north of the country. The company has a 30-year concession over the acreage in question.

Guinean doubt

Vale has large iron ore reserves in Guinea but may chose to concentrate on exploiting alternative reserves in Brazil while the political and contract situation in the troubled West African state is resolved. The fate of the Simandou concessions is proving to be particularly difficult to resolve, probably because of the sheer wealth resting on what is believed to be the biggest untapped iron ore reserves left in the world.

A previous administration in Conakry awarded the concession to Rio Tinto but in 2008 much of it was hived off and transferred to privately owned BSG Resources, which hoped to develop the $10bn project alongside Vale. However, the new government claims that BSG Resources secured the asset improperly. A spokesperson for BSG said: “This is the fifth and most clumsy attempt by the government of Guinea in an ongoing campaign to illegally seize BSGR’s assets.” Repeated reassessment of mining concessions has delayed a string of mining projects in the country and Vale could be persuaded to look elsewhere.

Vale’s involvement in Africa could also be affected by developments in the global economy. In particular, China is expected to join the United States and the European Union in reducing its demand for iron ore, which is used in the steel-making process. In last October, Vale chief financial officer Luciano Siani said that the global raw materials boom could be over and so “efforts to control costs are under way in a major way at all levels of the company.” He revealed that the company’s annual investment in new projects was likely to peak this year at $21bn and that some assets could be put up for sale, although it remains to be seen whether any of these will be in Africa.

<span “=””>Eletrobras

<span “=””>Power company Centrais Elétricas Brasileiras SA (Eletrobras) is also turning its attentions towards Africa. As the tenth-largest power utility in the world and the biggest in South America, it has targeted the continent as the best place to expand its overseas operations. The firm’s chairman, José Carvalho Neto, has revealed that Eletrobras has set a goal of dedicating 10% of its investment budget to overseas projects. He told journalists in May: “We won’t achieve that target in 2013 but we are on the way to doing it in the next few years.”

<span “=””>The company generates about 85% of its electricity from hydro schemes and so it is in exploiting Africa’s vast untapped hydro potential that Eletrobras is expected to make most impact. The company’s chairman, José Carvalho Neto, commented: “We are studying a plant in Angola, which is a project that needs studies that take around two years and which may be concluded within five years.” Few details on the scheme have been released but press reports in Brazil suggest that the scheme would require investment of $700m. No details on the location of the project in question were released.

<span “=””>Eletrobras is also expected to take a 49% stake in the development of the 1.5 GW Mphanda Nkuwa hydro scheme in Mozambique, alongside majority shareholder Electricidade de Moçambique (EDM). The hydro project itself would cost $2.3bn, while two associated 1,500km transmission lines would require combined investment of $3.7bn. Some electricity from the project would be distributed inside Mozambique but probably the lion’s share would be sold in other markets within the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP). Partial finance could be provided by BNDES, which holds a 23% stake in Eletrobras. Environmental and economic feasibility studies on the venture are expected to be completed by the end of next year.

<span “=””>The Brazilian power company may also work alongside EDM, Electricité de France (EdF) and Eskom of South Africa in developing the $1.8bn Centre-South (Cesul) transmission project in the same country. Cesul has been designed to provide a 1,340km transmission backbone for the entire Mozambican power grid, in order to support national electrification. However, funding for the venture and the exact equity breakdown have yet to be determined.

<span “=””>First of many in Tanzania

<span “=””>Eletrobras could be one company to benefit from the development of the Mnyera Falls hydro scheme on the borders of Iringa, Njombe and Morogoro regions in Tanzania. Speaking at the end of September, the director general of the Rufiji Development Authority (RUBADA), Aloyce Masanja, revealed that the project would be fully funded by the Brazilian government, partly in the form of a grant. Total construction costs are estimated at more than $1bn. Raphael Mwalyosi, the chairman of RUBADA, commented: “The availability of electricity in the area will give a chance for private sector and the government to undertake mechanised agriculture and modern irrigation while ensuring food security in the country.”

<span “=””>A preliminary feasibility study has already been undertaken by Queiroz Galvao Construction of Brazil. It expected that the site would support a 485 MW hydro scheme, but the study concluded that more than 700 MW was possible. The Brazilian Ambassador to Tanzania, Fransisco Luz, added: “Energy is the base of a stronger economy. It is encouraging to see the Tanzanian government doing everything possible to make sure that the country is endowed with abundant power, which in the long run will transform a country into an industrial and investment hub.”

<span “=””>Masanja added: “We intend to sell the power to Ruvuma, Iringa, Njombe and to the national grid. When in full operation, we will consider selling the surplus electricity to East African countries and other neighbouring countries of Malawi, Zambia and Congo.”

<span “=””>Odebrecht

<span “=””>Several Brazilian engineering and construction firms are now making inroads into numerous African markets. Last year, for example, the government of Cape Verde awarded a $220m contract to develop a new government administrative area in Praia to ARG. However, it is Odebrecht that has enjoyed the most success, particularly in Angola and Mozambique but also in South Africa, Zimbabwe and Botswana.

<span “=””>As mentioned previously, Odebrecht is the biggest private sector employer in Angola, with 20,000 employees, where it has been active for more than 25 years. Since the end of the country’s civil war in 2002, a construction boom has gradually gathered pace in Luanda and some of the country’s other main urban centres. Odebrecht has used its established position in the country and connections with officials to secure many of the contracts on offer.

<span “=””>The company has also moved beyond the construction and engineering sectors and is now working with the Angolan government to invest in sugar cane projects in order to produce ethanol, electricity and sugar itself, although the use of arable land for fuel production has been criticised by some development non-governmental organisations. The $400m Biocom sugar cane project is being developed by Odebrecht and Angolan state-owned companies Damer and Sonangol.

<span “=””>In July, Odebrecht completed a new road network in Huambo and Malange, including a 125km stretch to connect the provinces of Huambo and Benguela that provides inland areas with better connections with coastal ports. Other Angolan projects include residential housing, supermarkets, airports, business parks, offices and a range of other buildings, many of which have benefited from funding from the government of Brazil.

<span “=””>Since 2006, BNDES has provided $3.2bn in loans to 65 projects in Angola that have been developed by Brazilian companies. Of these, 32 projects are being undertaken by Odebrecht.

<span “=””>Odebrecht has benefited from mining sector schemes in Africa. It is developing mine infrastructure for Vale in Mozambique’s Tete Province and has also secured the contract to develop Nacala International Airport. In Angola, it has provided varied infrastructure for Angola Exploration Mining Resources’ iron ore project in Huila Province. Félix Martins, the contract director, said: “Improvements are planned in the region’s infrastructure, crude and potable water distribution, energy generation and distribution and construction of roads.”

<span “=””>The Brazilian firm is also working in another post-conflict setting in Liberia, where it has been awarded a contract to redevelop the 240km railway that runs inland from the port of Buchanan. Here too, it has opted to provide work to local people instead of drafting in its own labourers, partly in order to give local people a stake in the project. Project manager Pedro Paulo Tosca said: “It worked perfectly. The majority of the heavy work was activities that we could perform with local manpower instead of bringing sophisticated equipment to the site.”

<span “=””>He added: “Of course, you have a learning process. The risk of accidents is higher: therefore you have to invest more time in training. [But with machines], if you have a breakdown, to have a part here, to replace it, takes several weeks, if not months.”

<span “=””>Each section of track will continue to be maintained by the people who live alongside it. The firm is also keen to advertise the fact that it has trained local people to work in technical and engineering positions.

– See more at: http://africanbusinessmagazine.com/special-reports/the-brazilian-companies-in-africa/#sthash.EpYn4NMO.dpuf

Blame it on Rio : Most Beautiful Black Brazillian Actresses and Celebrities

Sheron Menezzes is a popular Brazilian television actress who has starred in more than a dozen shows. Two years ago, she made her film debut in the Brazilian movie, O Inventor de Sonhos.

Nanda Lisboa is a young actress who has starred in two television shows in Brazil.

nanda1

Quitéria Chagas is an actress from Brazil who has appeared in three movies. She also, obviously, does some modeling.

Quiteria_Chagas_

Raquel Villar is an actress with nine credits, including the current television show, Amor a Vida

Juliana Alves is a Brazilian actress and model who was a star on the show Big Brother Brazil 

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Adriana Bombom is a model, actress and television host.

Tais Araujo was the first Black Brazilian actress to be a protagonist in a Brazilian telenovela.

Marina Nery

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Lais Ribeiro

Bernadine

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Luana Genót is a model and studies advertising at the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio.

Isabel Correia is a Brazilian beauty queen who won Miss World Sergipe 2009. She was a contestant on Brazil’s “Next Top Model” television show. Although she ultimately didn’t win, no one could deny that Isabel more than represents the beauty of black women of Brazil.

690full-isabel-correia

Largest Metros in Brazil

  1. São Paulo São Paulo 11,244,369  (U.S Equivalent- New York)

2.  Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro 6,323,037  (U.S Equivalent-Los Angeles)

rio-de-janeiro

3. Salvador Bahia 2,676,606 4 4  (U.S Equivalent-Chicago, Detroit, New Orleans)

4. Brasília Distrito Federal 2,562,963 5 5  (US Equivalent Washington,D.C)

5. Fortaleza Ceará 2,447,409 6 6

6. Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais 2,375,444 (U.S Equivalent Chicago)

7 Manaus Amazonas 1,802,525 8

8 Curitiba Paraná 1,746,896 9  (U.S Equivalent -Boston)

9 Recife Pernambuco 1,536,934   (U.S Equivalent-Miami)

800px-visconde_de_jequitinhonha_avenue_-_recife_pernambuco_brazil

10 Porto Alegre Rio Grande do Sul 1,409,939  (US Equivalent-Boston)

 

 

Metro

1 São Paulo São Paulo 21,090,791

Map of São Paulo

2 Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro              12,280,703

Map of Rio de Janeiro

3 Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais   5,829,921

Map of Belo Horizonte Brazil

4 Porto Alegre Rio Grande do Sul 4,258,926

Map of Porto Alegre Brazil

5 Recife Pernambuco   4,201,737

Map of Recife Brazil

6 Brasília Distrito Federal 3,985,295

Map of Brasília Brazil

 

7. Salvador Bahia  3,953,288

Map of Salvador Brazil

8. Fortaleza Ceará 3,985,295

Map of Fortaleza Brazil

9 Curitiba Paraná 3,172,357 1

Map of Curitiba Brazil

10 Campinas São Paulo 2,633,523

Map of Campinas Brazil