Haiti – Slave Revolt 1804, (Achieved through war and violence) Mistakes made -In 1825, France, with warships at the ready, demanded Haiti compensate France for its loss of men and slave colony. In exchange for French recognition of Haiti as a sovereign republic, France demanded payment of 150 million francs (modern equivalent of $21 billion). In 1838, France agreed to reduce the debt to 90 million francs to be paid over a period of 30 years to compensate former plantation owners who had lost their property . That is the main reason why Haiti is poor today.
British American Colonies – 1838 – Why – Change in economic interests Enslaved people had resisted the trade since it began. However, the French Revolution brought ideas of liberty and equality, which inspired those seeking an end to slavery (for example, Toussaint L’Ouverture who led a successful slave revolt in Haiti). Major slave revolts followed (Barbados 1816, Demerara1822 and Jamaica 1831-1832); they reduced profitability and gave a strong indication that, regardless of politicial opinion, the enslaved people were not going to tolerate enslavement. The revolts shocked the British government and made them see that the costs and dangers of keeping slavery in the West Indies were too high. In places like Jamaica, many terrified plantation owners were finally ready to accept abolition rather than risk a widespread war.
- Parliamentary reform. When parliament was finally reformed in 1832, two-thirds of those who supported slavery were swept from power. The once powerful West India Lobby had lost its political strength.
- Abolition campaigns and religious groups. The demand for freedom for enslaved people had become almost universal. It was now driven forward, not only by the formal abolition campaign but by a coalition of non-conformist churches as well as Evangelicals in the Church of England.
French American Colonies – 1848
Spanish colonies (1813 Mexico) 1853-, Argentina, Peru, Venezuela, Puerto Rico 1873, Cuba 1886
United States – (Achieved through war and violence) Slave Uprisings, Civil War, Civil Rights Movement.
Brazil – (Achieved through war and violence) Slave Uprisings, Abolition by the state 1888 – Mistakes
Zanzibar – Zanzibar rebellion ( Achieved through war and violence)
English African Colonies 1957 ( Achieved through negotiations)
French African colonies 1960- Nonviolent independence movements and negotiotions
Portuguese African colonies 1975 – War
Zimbabwe – Zimbabwe movement 1980
South Africa – Anti apartheid Struggle