Largest Black population outside of Africa at 110 million about 51%of the population with a spending power of $400 billion
Africans and their descendants made up the economic backbone of Brazil for the first four centuries of its history
The Portuguese were the first to transport slaves from Africa. and the last to end the slave trade.
Salvador largest Black Majority City outside Africa
Black Brazilians dominate Soccer and have helped Brazil win more World Cups than any other country
Samba is a dance authentic to black/African people in Brazil who brought much of their music and dance culture into Latin America with, them upon arrival into many Latin American countries. Samba music is very similar to many Angolan music genres. Angola is a country on the western coast of southern Africa. Angolan music not only influenced Samba music, but many other Latin American music genres and dances
History -Last country to abolish slavery caused by slave revolts
According to the Brazilian constitution of 1988, racism is a crime for which bail is not available, and must be met with 6 months to 8 years imprisonment. This is taken very seriously. However, the law only seems to apply to overt, unquestionably racist statements and actions
High levels of race mixing 33% of marriages are interracial
Famous Afro Brazillians
Most accomplished Soccer player in the World
Marina Silva- a Brazilian environmentalist and politician. Would have been Brazil’s first Black President
Tais Araujo – She was the first Black Brazilian actress to be a protagonist in a Brazilian telenovela, Xica da Silva (1996), in Rede Manchete. She was also a protagonist on another telenovela, Da Cor do Pecado (2004) in Rede Globo channel.
Sharon Menezzes – Actress
Paulo Zulu – Actor/Model
Camila Pitanga – Is a Brazilian filmand television actress, former fashion design model and television presenter. She is internationally renowned for her roles in films and telenovelas. In films, she is known for her roles in Quilombo, Caramuru: A Invenção do Brasil,Redentor, Eu Receberia as Piores Notícias dos Seus Lindos Lábios, Uma História de Amor e Fúria among others. In television she is known for her roles in Paraíso Tropical, Cama de Gato, Lado a Lado and Babilônia.
Raissa Santa – Miss Brazil 2016
Giberto Gil – is a Brazilian singer, guitarist, and songwriter, known for both his musical innovation and political commitment. From 2003 to 2008, he served as Brazil’s Minister of Culture in the administration of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva. Gil’s musical style incorporates an eclectic range of influences, including Rock music, Brazilian genres including samba, African music, and reggae.
Heloisa Assis – The Richest Black Woman in Brazil. Founder and CEO of Beleza Natural, a chain of beauty Institutes and a cosmetics factory, specialised in curly hair treatments in Brazil. Beleza Natural currently has 4000 employees, 35 locations in 5 different states, a factory, 5 training centers and annual revenues of more than $100 million US Dollars. it’s headed toward 1 billion reais ($451 million) in sales by 2018, according to the company. Brazil is the world’s third-largest market for hygiene and personal care.
Rachel Maia – CEO of Pandora jewelry in Brazil
Geraldo Rufino – Founder of JR Diesel. The company earns 50 million a year and has a hundred employees.
A Black Brazilian professional volleyball player who won the 2012 Summer Olympics gold medal with the Brazil national team.[Garay is a sergeant and she played at the 2011 Military World Games volleyball tournament, winning the won the gold medal and the Most Valuable Player and Best Spiker individual awards.
Aleijadinho – was a Colonial Brazil-born sculptor and architect, noted for his works on and in various churches of Brazil.Within a very short time he had become a noted architect himself and had designed and constructed the Chapel of the Third Order of St. Francis of Assisi in Ouro Preto. He had also executed the carvings on the building, the most notable being a round bas-relief depicting St. Francis receiving the stigmata.
André Rebouças – was a Brazilian military engineer, abolitionist and inventor. Serving as a military engineer during the Paraguayan War in Paraguay, Rebouças developed a torpedo, which was used successfully.
Alongside Machado de Assis and Olavo Bilac, Rebouças was a very important middle class representative with African descent, he also was one of the most important voices for the abolition of slavery in Brazil
Arlindo Veiga dos Santos and José Correa Leite
two of the founders of the Frente Negra Brasileira
Brazil already had their Black Panthers well before the movement emerged in the United States in the 1960s to guarantee the rights of the US black population; and without the necessity of using force. In September 1931, when racial discrimination and segregation were normal and acceptable practices in Brazil, a group of blacks got organized and created one of the first organizations of a national character that fought for equal social and political rights for all, regardless of skin color. It was the Frente Negra Brasileira (FNB), that later became a political party.
At the height of its existence, the FNB maintained schools so that blacks could study, as well as vocational courses
Zumbi- 1655 – November 20, 1695), also known as Zumbi dos Palmares (Portuguese pronunciation: [zũˈbi dus pɐwˈmaɾis]), was the last of the leaders of the Quilombo dos Palmares, a fugitive settlement in the present-day state ofAlagoas, Brazil. Quilombo dos Palmares was a self-sustaining republic of Maroons escaped from the Portuguese settlements in Brazil, “a region perhaps the size of Portugal in the hinterland of Bahia”. At its height, Palmares had a population of over 30,000.
- Lack of representation in
Some Black Brazillians have started to counter this and create their own magazines
It is interesting to note International black TV images fill the void left by lack of black representation in Brazilian media
Many Black American cultural phenoms have influenced Black Brazillians
Such as Funk music
(Rio youth display their style in the streets in the 1970s (Photo: Almir Veiga)
Current President (Michel Temer) Cabinet All White Males in a country that is 51% Black
Previous Previous President’s Cabinet, only slightly more diverse
This is Salvador’s city council, a city that is 80% Black
2. Poverty and Crime
Black Brazilians only make 50% of What White Brazillians make $10,000
Indeed, according to our own estimates, the proportion of students aged 16 years or less attending a private school is 22 percent for whites but only 11 percent for Afro-Brazilians
83% of Wealthy are White & 17% of wealthy are Black and own 6% of the wealth in the Country.
70% of All Favela dwellers or poor are Black Brazilian. Almost 30% of poor are White
Brazil has the highest number of murders of around 50,000 a year
9 of the World’s 50 most violent cities are in Brazil. More than any other country.
Brazil is the world’s largest market for crack cocaine, and a lot of the violence is fueled by drugs.
3. Racial Profiling and Police Brutality
4. Lack of unity in identity
- University quotas – Requiring public universities to reserve half of their admission spots for the largely poor students in the nation’s public schools and vastly increase the number of university students of African descent across the country.expected the number of black students admitted to these universities to climb to 56,000 from 8,700.
The law obligates public universities to assign their spots in accordance with the racial makeup of each of Brazil’s 26 states and the capital, Brasília.October 2012, gives Brazil’s 59 federal universities four years to ensure that half of their incoming classes are from public schools, which generally serve poorer students. Half of those students must come from families with monthly earnings of less than $500 per capita. The pool of admitted students must also be representative of the racial mix in the local population.
Roughly 20 per cent of jobs in state governments, plus some federal institutions such as the diplomatic corps, are reserved for applicants who identify as black and mixed race.
(University of Zumbi dos Palmares is the County’s only Black university.)
2. Teaching of Black history-Brazil passed a law in 2003 making the teaching of Afro-Brazilian and African history and culture compulsory in all public and private schools,
Interest in Their African Culture
Interest in Building a Black Cultural Infrastructure
2. Bolsa Família- a program started by the Labor Party which provides families with less than $100 a month earned only if the children go to school and are immunized. There are no food stamps, no WIC, no housing allowances, no Earned Income Tax Credit. There is no culture of dependency in Brazil. People work hard to survive
Ratified in 1988 after a two-decade-long military dictatorship, Brazil’s constitution states that residents of quilombos are entitled to a permanent, non-transferable title to the land they occupy — something analogous to the United States’ Native American reservations, minus the self-government.
Now, more than 1 million black Brazilians are calling upon the government to honor their constitutional right to land.When Lula’s decree was issued in 2003, there were 29 recognized quilombos in Brazil. As of 2013, that number had swelled to more than 2,400, comprising more than 1 million people, with hundreds more communities applying that have yet to be recognized.
4. high business ownership
The number of black business owners grew by 29% between 2001 and 2011 – from 8.6 million to 11 million – while the number of white entrepreneurs increased by just one percent (from 11.4 million to 11.5 million) over the same period.
Fuelling the change has been a stronger and more stable economy and social policies, which helped the incomes of black Brazilians increase by 123% between 2000 and 2012 – five times faster than the rest of the population, according a report by Globo newspaper in 2012.like construction, agriculture and hairstyling.
5. growing middle class
Fueled by a blossoming economy and a government program aimed at reducing income inequality, approximately 80 percent of Brazil’s new members of the middle class are black. Over the past decade, the middle class has grown by 38 percent, according to government reports from the Strategic Affairs Secretariat of the Presidency. Incomes of black Brazilians grew by 123 percent between 2000 and 2012—five times faster than the rest of the population, according to a report by Globo newspaper in 2012.
Last September, the Brazilian government released a study, Vozes da Classe Média (Voices of the Middle Class), noting that 53 percent of Brazilians are currently in the middle class. Of these, 80 percent are Afro-Brazilian. The data was covered extensively in the Brazilian press and sparked a debate about the extent to which Brazil’s recent economic growth has generated an improved standard of living for its overall population.
On one side, optimists celebrated the data, which showed improved social mobility for about 30 million people.
The Brazilian middle class is the third fastest growing in the world, trailing only India and China. Brazil’s middle class is urban, concentrated in the southeast (45 percent) and fascinated with technology. According to the Voices of Brazil study, if this social class were a country, it would be the twelfth most populous country in the world with 104 million people, just below Mexico.
On the other hand, skeptics said that Brazil’s middle class was different from the middle class in countries like the United States, where the middle class not only consumes goods and services but is also educated and enjoys an overall strong quality of life. Brazil’s historical lack of investment in education, its violence and its high levels of corruption have been barriers to complete social growth.
Comparisons to Black America
Pride and Sense of who they are:
Black Americans have more of a sense of who they are than Black Brazilians
Black Americans have more of an infrastructure due to segregation, that they were forced to build up for themselves than Black Brazillians
Black Brazilians have more business ownership
Black Americans are more educated at 21% with College degrees compared to 15% for Black Brazillians