Jamaican Patois becoming the youth language of choice in larger countries
In some parts of England and Toronto Canada, a dialect heavy with Jamaican and Afro-Caribbean inflections is being spoken by a significant portion of the youth population. British linguists are calling it “multicultural youth English,” or MYE. Jamaican Creole, or JamC , what the academics are now calling the patois native to Jamaica, has become the dialect employed not just by the children of Jamaican immigrants, but also by second-generation West Indians of other national origins (i.e. of Trinidadian, Grenadian, Guyanese, etc. parentage) and simultaneously by Black youth of various African heritage. For British-born, urban Black people, JamC became a code used as a marker of Black identity with sociolinguistic functions similar to African-American vernacular English in the United States.
Soon after, even young white people of local, English origins started adopting JamC into their linguistic practices. Reportedly, many of those urban British-born adolescents who showed the highest levels of JamC competence had no Afro-Caribbean family background at all. The samephenomenon is being observed among the youth in Canada, primarily in the city of Toronto, which has a large Jamaican population.
Paul Kerswill, a professor of Lancaster University, has studied MYE—and says it is no passing fad. ‘There is evidence that this new type of English is spreading outside London around the big urban centers of England—some young people in Birmingham and Manchester use local versions of it, for example, says Kerswill. He added: “It is already in many people’s ordinary speech and will stay with them into adulthood.”Many experts also project the Jamaican-influenced dialect will usurp some traditional regional dialects, such as Cockney in London, within the next 20 years.
dailymail.co.ukv, telegraph.co.ukv, academia.edu
Rastafari is a worldwide Africa-centered cultural way of life and political movement that was founded in Jamaica in the early 1930s by Leonard P. Howell, a student of Marcus Garvey. After learning of the injustices to Black people around the world, Howell established the Rastafari movement and was arrested more than 50 times in the process. A pivotal point in Rastafari is when Howell was imprisoned for two years for sedition after publishing his book “The Promise Key.” Thereafter, the Rastafari movement grew into large numbers in Jamaica, as the British colonizers turned Howell into a political prisoner.
By the late 20th century, awareness of the Rastafari movement had spread throughout much of the world, largely through interest generated by reggae music, especially the major international success of Jamaican singer-songwriter Bob Marley.
Today, according to one estimate, there are more than one million Rastafari faithful worldwide, with Rastas dwelling in Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America.
Jamaican cuisine includes a mixture of cooking techniques, flavors, spices and influences from various different cultures brought to the island.
The foods include jerk chicken, curry goat, fried dumplings, ackee and salt fish—the national dish of Jamaic —fried plantains, steamed cabbage, escovitched fish, rice and peas and much more.
These Jamaican dishes are available throughout most parts of the world. In North America, the United Kingdom, Canada and other countries there thousands of Jamaican restaurants in metropolitan areas.
In the U.S., Golden Krust Caribbean Bakery and Grill, is a popular Jamaican restaurant that was started in Bronx, NY by Jamaican immigrant Lowell Hawthorne in 1989. As demand grew for Krust’s Jamaican food, a number of restaurants opened. The company eventually became not only the largest Caribbean restaurant franchise chain, but also the largest Black-owned restaurant franchiser in the United States with 120 restaurants in several states.
eatjamaican.com, blackenterprise.com, wikipedia.org
Reggae Music is a global movement.
Reggae music is a multi-billion dollar industry, and with well over 100,000 albums released during the last 50 years, Jamaica produces the most music per capita of any country in the world.
Jamaican reggae often incorporates local instruments, while fusing with other genres. Many people are familiar with reggae’s influence in the formation of hip- hop in the U.S., and lovers rock, dubstep and drum and bass in the U.K. However, from the Caribbean to Southeast Asia, there are many sub-genres of music that can claim roots spawned from Jamaican reggae.
In the 1960s and 1970s reggae arrived in places like Panama and Puerto Rico and eventually became reggae en Español. The music eventually made its way through Central America and continued morphing until reaching prominence in Puerto Rico as “reggaeton.” This version of the music is an adaptation of Jamaican dance hall reggae to the Spanish language and other cultural elements from Panama and Puerto Rico. Samba reggae originated in Brazil as a blend of samba with Jamaican reggae.
Since the early ’70s reggae has been in Africa, but after musician Bob Marley’s visit to Zimbabwe in April 1980, reggae’s popularity exploded and fused with local music all over Africa, including Ethiopia, Mali, Sudan, Nigeria, Malawi, Ghana and Ivory Coast.
During the years of apartheid in South Africa, the music bonded people from all demographics. Lucky Dube recorded 25 albums, fusing reggae with Mbaqanga. The Marcus Garvey Rasta camp inPhillipi is regarded by many to be the reggae and Rastafarian center of Cape Town, South Africa.
Reggae music is also big business in Japan, and Jamaican musicians are in demand more than ever. In the Philippines, several bands and sound systems play their version of reggae and dancehall called Pinoy.
Aside from the reggae music and Rastafarian influences seen frequently on Thailand’s islands and beaches, a true reggae subculture is taking root in Thailand’s cities and towns. Reggae music is also quite popular in Sri Lanka. For decades, Hawaiian reggae has had a big following on the Hawaiian islands and the West Coast of the U.S.
Australian Aboriginals have been listening to reggae since the 1980, are now performing what’s called Desert Reggae in their own traditional languages.
Track & Field
By all accounts, Jamaica is the most popular country globally when it comes to track and field. Though it is a small country with a population of only 2.7 million, Jamaica’s impact globally has been significant in the past two Olympic Games.
Countries like the U.S. and China are Olympic medal producing powerhouses as they have many resources, including a large population from which to develop Olympic medalists. However, in a comparison of medal winnings to population size of the country, Jamaica blows both the U.S. and China away.
In the 2008 Olympics, Jamaica was ranked No. 1 for total gold medals won per capita with six, in addition to three silvers and two bronze. That means Jamaica earned 2.2 medals per million people that year. The United States was 31st, China was 45th, and Russia topped at 26th.
In the 2012 Olympics, Jamaica was ranked No. 4 for total gold medals won per capita with four, plus four silvers and four bronzes. That year, the United States ranked 28th, Russia was 25th and China was 47th.
In terms of the most successful countries based on the total medals won per capita all-time, Jamaica is ranked 10th. That is amazingly efficient for such a small country compared to larger countries such as the U.S.A, which ranked 33rd and China’s 47th ranking.
topendsports.com, freakonomics.com, simon.forsyth.net, news.xinhuanet.com